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Keyboard In Western Style ID-****



Brought to you by

Contributing Authors

Nisar Bazmi, Walayat Ali Khan

Saleem Shahzaad, Najib Khan

© Copyright 2004 Virtual Musical Publications - All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying recording or otherwise) without the prior written permission of the publisher. This e-Book is provided free, subject to the condition that is shall not be circulated without the publisher’s prior permission VIRTUAL MUSIC PUBLICATIONS PVT LTD

© 2004 Virtual Music Publications – All Rights Reserved=-098479346’ Keyboard In Western Style ID-5566



Western Style assumes you have no prior knowledge of music or playing the keyboard or you play without correct approach. This book will show you: How to play keyboard in western style?

Difference between major and minor scales.

Scales and chords formation.

How chords are formed in film songs?

How to play Indian music notations with chords?

Vocal Training again and again

This book also features about scales and western style chords. All music players should know all of the information contained in this book. In this book we have provided detailed information about scales formation, fingering and chords with different methods repetedly. We have also provided practical exercises for scales and fingering which is important for a beginner. The best and fastest way to learn is to use this book in conjunction with: Buying midi music of your favorite songs from the internet or Practicing and playing with other musicians. Learning by playing your favorite Indian Pakistani midi music with free virtual music notes player. This virtual notes player will show real time notes being played while you practice any song. Be practical in the early stages, it is helpful to have the guidance of an experienced teacher. This will also help you keep a schedule and obtain weekly goals.


From the beginning you should set yourself a goal. Many people learn keyboard or piano because of a desire to play old songs of sub-continent. It is important to have a correct approach to practice from beginning. You will benefit more from short practices (15-30 minutes per day) than one or two long sessions per week. Correct approach is learning with the scales and chords concept in which melodious film songs are being composed. First learn octave names and names of notes. After learning notes its fingering practice in all three octaves is also necessary. In the beginning try to play songs in a particular scale and after that listen and learn chords and play songs with chords. Listen and play famous film songs with notations provided with the book. Do, not try to play chords in the early stage of your learning. While practice, try to take help from the book repeatedly. I am sure within few weeks you will be able to play your favorite tunes yourself without any help but chords require additional practice. In the end do not forget to learn rhythm theory along with melody. Gradually you will become master. If you want to become a sing-along singer then practice with karaoke music. USING THE COMPACT DISK

It is recommended that you have a copy of the accompanying download that includes all the notations and midi notes player software etc.. Midi music will sound identical to keyboard instruments in your computer if you play it with Yamaha sound cards. Midi music can also be played with a floppy or in USB equipped keyboards. Midi music is a digital music with 16 individual recorded tracks that you can edit or change in your own computer using Cubase software and Yamaha sound card. You may sing- along with midi music in your computers and record your own compact disk of your favorite songs using latest Yamaha PSR S-900 Keyboard.

© 2004 Virtual Music Publications – All Rights Reserved=-098479346’ Keyboard In Western Style ID-5566


Table of Contents Page

Western Keyboard Music 7

Sound Waves 7

Sound Pitch 8

Naming Intervals 8

Tonal Center 9

Learning the notes of keyboard 9

How to find middle C 10

Finger Numbers 11

Sharp Notes 11

Flat Notes 12

Introducing Major Scales 13

Tones & Semitones 14

12 Major Scales with flat notes 15

12 Major Scales with flat notes diagrams 17

12 Major Scales with sharp notes 18

12 Major Scales with sharp notes diagrams 19

How Minor Scales are formed 20

Accidentals or key signatures 20

How to memorize key signatures 21

Major scales formation 22

Fingering for scales (fingers with numbers) 23

12 Minor Scales with flat notes 26

12 Minor Scales with flat notes diagrams 27

12 Minor Scales with flat notes diagrams 28

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Table of Contents Page

12 Minor Scales with sharp notes 29

Fingering Scales (more fingering rules) 30

Major & Minor Scales fingering chart (chart with finger numbers) 31 Chords Progression 33

Major Chords 33

Finding other major chords method 1 35

12 Major Chords diagrams 36

12 Minor Chords diagrams 39

Major and Minor Chords fingering 39

Important basic chords for practice 39

All chords finder table 42

Harmonizing the melody with matching chords (Using chords in songs) 43 Major 7th chords 44

Dominant and sub-dominant chords 45

Root, Dominant, Sub-dominant & Major 7th chords - Indian songs 46 I, VI, V Chords for using in Indian film songs 47

Indian music verses western 48

Melody, Rhythm and Harmony 49

Playing by hearing 50

Keys of a keyboard 51

Right hand C position 51

Right hand warm-up (Exercises) 51

Left hand warm-up (exercises) 52

Middle C position (two exercises) 53

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Table of Contents Page

The D note (two exercises) 54

Four-Four time signature 54

The half note (three exercises) 54

The Note E 55

The whole note (two exercises) 55

Introducing B for left hand (exercises) 56

Three important chords 56

Introducing B for right hand 57

C & G7th Chords for RH 57

Introducing A for left hand 58

Warm-Up using C, G7th & F chords (exercises) 58

Introducing A for Right Hand 58

Warm-Up using C, G7th & F chords 59

Introducing the F major chord 59

Warm-Up using C, G7th & F chords (exercises) 60

Using note G finger position in keyboard notes 60

The sharp sign 61

The flat sign 61

The G Major & D7 Chords for right hand 62

Introducing E for Right hand (exercise) 63

Introducing E for left hand (exercise) 63

New C major chord position right hand (exercise) 65 Introducing commonly used chords for left hand (exercises) 66 Commonly used chords for both hands (exercises) 67

© 2004 Virtual Music Publications – All Rights Reserved=-098479346’ Keyboard In Western Style ID-5566


Table of Contents Page

12 Major scales and their chords (with notes diagrams) 68 Finding chords for Indian songs in C major scale (with notes diagrams) 68 Finding chords for Indian songs in D major scale (with notes diagrams) 69 Finding chords for Indian songs in E major scale (with notes diagrams) 70 Finding chords for Indian songs in F major scale (with notes diagrams) 71 How to find chords in majorIndian scale songs (with notes diagrams) 82 I-IV-V Chord progression 83

Rhythm – Pulse and Meter 85

Tal or meter in North Indian Music 86

Music therapy promotes health 87

29 tips for keyboardists 88

Indian songs notations with chords 90

1. Aa laut ke aa ja mere meet notations with chords rhythm and tempo 90 2. Aaja re ab mera dil pukara, notations with chords 91 3. Aaja sanam madhur chaandani me ham notations with chords 92 4. Chu kar mere man ko, notations with chords rhythm and tempo 93 5. Dil ke jharoke me, notations with chords rhythm and tempo 94 6. Ik pardesi mera dil le gayaa, notations with chords 95 7. Mere naina sawan bhaadon, notations with chords 96 8. Suhani raat dhal chuki, notations with chords rhythm and tempo 97 9. Ye mera prem patar padha kar, notations with chords 98 All famous chords with diagrams 99

About Ethnic Music 108

About Indian Music 108

© 2004 Virtual Music Publications – All Rights Reserved=-098479346’ Keyboard In Western Style ID-5566


Western Keyboard Music

Keyboard or piano have the same keys so, these lessons are for both instruments. Many websites claim to have courses that you can purchase that will teach you how to "play piano by ear" or "learn the chord method", this book contains the same information as those courses and what's best is explained in a simple manner. Lots of people really would like to play the keyboard or piano, the most popular instrument. They don't know one note from another. They do know they love music and want to learn how to use chords and scales to play popular tunes of Indo-Pak. Many, many music lessons, charts, books, and explanations are available in websites and in bookstores. Which to choose? With books, you have to stop, turn the page, go back to another page, and try to keep the pages from flipping if the book doesn't lie flat or not in spiral binding. Web sites need scrolling or clicking the "back" or "forward" buttons. This will provide you practical information about music-playing, as well as detailed material on the most convenient charts and graphics so you, too, can play your favorites music now. Be happy and don't worry.

You cannot find all information about keyboard chords, scales and fingerings in a single book. Western music books are being sold in parts. You are bound to purchase part two or three. The most important thing you can do is to make a commitment to learn the piano or keyboard. This means putting in the effort over the course of several weeks to learn and practice the theory taught on these pages. This article was initiated along with a set of articles on Western and Indian form of Music. This is an attempt to explain things to a newbie who has just got a keyboard and wants to romance with it. In my opinion, both Western and Indian music forms are complex subjects and any simplification will indeed be a tough task. Frankly, my expertise in both forms is limited and through my constant exposure over the period of years I have learnt few basics of both. It is indeed a great pleasure to share the knowledge that I have acquired from different resources and tried to compile this comprehensive book. Listening to music is a pleasure that most get from birth. This increases to a great extent when you understand the basics and appreciate. Music can be defined as collection of small pieces of regular sound played at predefined time interval. An ingenious collection of these notes played over a period of time results in a melody. Hence both western and Indian or for that matter any form of regular music has a set of basic notes from which they grow, something like alphabets. There is a new concept evolving called “computer music” where a musician explores beyond the basic notes that are defined in music. In cakewalk and Cubase SX3 it is possible to explore beyond basics. Let us see more on Notes - “Notes” what are they? Note can be technically explained as a sound frequency. Actually the sound that is produced when you press a key on musical keyboard is called as

“NOTE”. It does not matter if you press the white key or the black key. Each key plays a predefined frequency. The note gets its shape by the amount of time you hold down the key and release it. This is called the note length or duration. Hence to make a “tune” or a “melody” or “song” you should play a bunch of these notes at proper duration and length. Before going more into it, let us explore the keyboard.

Sound Waves

Musical notes, like all sounds, are made of sound waves. The sound waves that make musical notes are very evenly spaced waves, and the qualities of these regular waves - for example how big they are or how far apart they are - affects the sound of the note. A note can be high or low, depending on how often (how frequently) one of its waves arrives at your ear. When scientists and engineers talk about how high or low a sound is, they talk about its frequency. Frequency is the number of cycles per second.

© 2004 Virtual Music Publications – All Rights Reserved=-098479346’ Keyboard In Western Style ID-5566


The higher the frequency of a note, the higher it sounds. They can measure the frequency of notes, and like most measurements, these will be numbers, like "440 vibrations per second." All sound waves are traveling at about the same speed, which is the speed of sound. So waves with a shorter wavelength arrive at your ear, quicker than longer waves. Since the sounds are traveling at about the same speed, the one with the shorter wavelength arrives our ear faster because it has a higher frequency, or pitch. In other words, it sounds higher. The word that musicians use for frequency is pitch. The shorter the wavelength, the higher the frequency and the higher the pitch of the sound. In other words, short waves sound high and long waves sound low. Sound Pitches

The interval between two notes is the distance between the two pitches - in other words, how much higher or lower one note is than the other. This concept is so important that it is almost impossible to talk about scales, chords, without referring to intervals. So if you want to learn western music theory, it would be a good idea to spend some time getting comfortable with the concepts and practicing identifying intervals.

Scientists usually describe the distance between two pitches in terms of the difference between their frequencies. Musicians find it more useful to talk about interval. Intervals can be described using half steps and whole steps. For example, you can say, "B natural is a half step below C natural", or "E flat is a step and a half above C natural". But when we talk about larger intervals in the major/minor system, there is a more convenient and descriptive way to name them. Naming Intervals

The first step in naming the interval is to find the distance between the notes. Count every space in between the notes. This gives you the number for the intervals. To find the interval, count spaces between two notes as well as all the spaces in between. The interval between B and D is a third. The interval between A and F is a sixth. Seconds, thirds, sixths, and sevenths can be major intervals or minor intervals. The minor interval is always a half step smaller than the major interval.

* Major and Minor Intervals1 half-step = minor second (m2)

* 2 half-steps = major second (M2)

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* 3 half-steps = minor third (m3)

* 4 half-steps = major third (M3)

* 8 half-steps = minor sixth (m6)

* 9 half-steps = major sixth (M6)

* 10 half-steps = minor seventh (m7)

* 11 half-steps = major seventh (M7)

Tonal Center

A scale starts with the note that names the key. This note is the tonal center of that key, the note where music in that key feels "at rest". It is also called the tonic, and it's the "do-re-mi". For example, music in the key of A major almost always ends on an A major chord, the chord built on the note A. It often also begins on that chord, returns to that chord often, and features a melody and a bass line that also return to the note A often enough that listeners will know where the tonal center of the music is, even if they don't realize that they know it.

Learning the notes of the Keyboard

Before we can learn how to play scales chords it is vital that we learn the notes on keyboard and how they relate to each other. The best way to describe the notes on the keyboard is by comparing them to the notes of the alphabets. The first seven notes of the keyboard are ( A - B - C - D -E - F - G ). Each note differs with each other in sound. Below are all seven notes of the keyboard. Notice that the seven notes of keyboard repeat themselves over and over again. That the notes sound the same but the pitch differs. For example if you play C and move to the right until you find the next C, you will notice that if you play them simultaneously, both notes sounds the same but one is higher than the other. Middle C marks the center of the keyboard. As you will notice the C Major is the easiest and simplest scale of the twelve. In C Major Scale you may play the song "ik pyar kaa nagma hai". It consists all the white keys from any starting C to the next. C. The diagram 1 below represents the C major scale in all three octaves. C major can be written as ( C maj, CM ). Diagram 1

Left Octave Middle Octave Right Octave

© 2004 Virtual Music Publications – All Rights Reserved=-098479346’ Keyboard In Western Style ID-5566


A standard semi professional music keyboard has 48 keys. You will see 4 sets of 12 keys and total 48 keys. One of these 12 set of notes is technically called an octave. Western music is based on logarithmic division. An octave is divided into 12 equal intervals such that the logarithm of the frequency ratio of two neighboring intervals is the same. This interval is called a semi tone. There are 12 mutually exclusive half notes in the system. In Indian music “Sa” note is based on your reference note or the key you selected as starting point. After Sa the first note will be ‘Re’ komal and then ‘Re’ tiver and so on. You can start playing Indian or Pakistani song from any key and the first note will become ‘Sa’ elsewhere. The traditional Indian music is based on a 22 keys per octave. In Western music Middle C octave that is also called the Middle C scale etc starts from the first white key set to 240 Hz. On your keyboard, middle C octave is located somewhere near the middle. Once you figured out where this octave is, you can quickly identify the first key of this octave (set to 240 Hz). And because we know the ratio of the key frequencies now we can pretty much compute the frequency generated by any key. You will also notice that the keyboard has about three to four octaves (between 36 to 48 keys. The upper octave, starting from 480 Hz is the Upper C octave and the lower octave starting at 120 Hz is the Lower C octave etc.

Note: ‘Sa’ does not “map” always onto ‘C’ or ‘C#’. It could start at F and still form a S R G M PD N sargam. In the western music system the ‘C’ note” itself does not change and scales denote the pitch changes. Thus Western music system has an “absolute” (fixed) naming for the keys whereas in Indian the notation is “relative. Whereas in desi style lessons we have assumed Sa of Indian to C# of western, the first black key. A Scale is a set of 7 notes in a proper order and intervals or a scale is set of 7 notes with predefined intervals. The distance between each note is called as interval. It is to be noted that scales and ragas are not same. Apart from having seven different notes in both western and Indian music, there are not many similarities. There is a difference between an Indian scale and western scale. Indian scale is called a thaat. Just going across “C” to “C” in a Western scale can be called as a major scale. Only few Indian scales are similar to western scales. Ragas have many dimensions to it. First, it has an emotional overtone. A raga can have 5 or more notes with intervals. This kind of reduction of notes in a scale is called as modes in Western classical music. Experts believe proper training is required to play Ragas fluently. This comes by good practice and understanding of notes usage. A western trained top-notch musician will be able to play a phrase of 1/64 note at a good speed but will find it difficult to play raga without proper training. How to find Middle C

Diagram 2

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The first note you learn to play is Middle ‘C’. Middle ‘C’ is the note closest to the middle of your keyboard. Place a ‘C’ sticker on the Middle C note. Play middle C with your right hand thumb. In the above picture of Keyboard we cannot show all 48 or 61 keys of a keyboard and we showed only left octave middle octave and part of right octave of the keyboard. Finger Numbers

The left and right hand fingers are numbered as shown above in the diagram. The thumb of each hand is counted as the first finger and has the number one. When a flat sign is placed after a note like Bb (B Flat) it means that you play the key immediately to the left side of note B. This note Bb will be black key just to left side and above the note B. So, any black key always have sharp and flat notes. When a sharp sign is placed after any note like C# it means that you play the key immediately just to its right. Note that C# is always a black key just after the white key “C” and B Flat key is black key just before white key “B”.

From right hand in middle octave and from note of middle ‘C” we play melody with our right hand and from left of Middle

‘C’ and in left octave of keyboard we play chords with our left hand. Sharp Notes:

Diagram 3

Left Octave Middle Octave Right Octave

C# (C Sharp) means the note just after “C” note. D# is the note just after D and E# is the note just after “E” note and so on. Here C, D, & E notes are white keys. See diagram 3 shown above for sharp notes only and diagram 4 shown below for flat notes only.

© 2004 Virtual Music Publications – All Rights Reserved=-098479346’ Keyboard In Western Style ID-5566


Flat Notes:

Diagram 4

Left Octave Middle Octave Right Octave

Db (D flat) means the note just before note D that is here a black note. Eb (E flat) is the note just before note E and so one. See Diagram 4 above. There are also two notes Cb (C flat) and Fb (flat), which are notes just before C and F, which are white keys only. Note Cb is just attached to the left side of note C and Note Fb is just attached to the left side of note F. Sharp & Flat Notes Showing Together

Diagram 5

Left Octave Middle Octave Right Octave

Notes of C# and Db are on the same key or we can say one note at the same time can be sharp or flat. If we want to locate C# note then it is the note just after note ‘C’ and when we want to locate Db (D flat) then it is the note just before note ‘D’. In other words we can name flat or sharp note at the same time to a single note. In the above given diagram 4 we have shown both sharp and flat keys together. Any black key may be sharp or flat.

The best way to describe the notes on the keyboard is by comparing them to the notes of the alphabets. The first seven notes of the keyboard are ( A - B - C - D -E - F - G ). Each note differs with each other in sound. We start from the note “C” as C, D, E, F, G, A, B, for playing keyboards in western style.

© 2004 Virtual Music Publications – All Rights Reserved=-098479346’ Keyboard In Western Style ID-5566


Introducing the Major Scale

Middle C

Diagram 6

For centuries, most Western music has been based on major and minor scales. That is one of the things that make it instantly recognizable as Western music. Most of the music of Eastern Asia is based upon thaat and ragas. A scale is a list of all the notes that begins with a specific key. Major scales all follow the same interval pattern. The simple, sing-along, nursery rhymes and folk songs we learn as children, the cheerful, toe-tapping pop and rock we dance to or Qomi Tarana, Pak Ser Zameen: Most music in a major key has a bright sound that people often describe as cheerful, inspiring, exciting, or just plain fun. In C Major Scale you may play the song "ik pyar kaa nagma hai". It consists all the white keys from any starting C to the next. C. Music in a particular key tends to use only some of the many possible notes available; these notes are listed in the scale associated with that key. The notes that a major key uses tend to build "bright"-sounding major chords. They also give a strong feeling of having a tonal center, a note or chord that feels like "home" in that key. The "bright"-sounding major chords and the strong feeling of tonality are what give major keys their pleasant moods. In this lesson we will learn all about the major scale. Although we will use a keyboard, the lesson should be of use to anyone who wants to learn about one of the most important and useful scales in music. In a keyboard you will see the familiar repeating pattern of notes. Starting from one C and moving upwards to the next produces the notes: C D E F G A B C Learn all the note names on a keyboard. The white key to the left of two black keys is always a C, now moving to the next white keys on the right we have D - E - F - G - A - B then back to C again. These note names just keep repeating. The name of the black keys (and some white keys as well) varies depending on whether it's a sharp or a flat. For example, the black key next to C may either be a C# or a Db. If you've played these C D E F G A B C notes on your keyboard - you've just played a Major Scale. This is the scale known as C Major. C Major is the most common scale in all Western music and there are eight notes in C Major scale. To simplify, you can memorize this formula to form a major scale:

Major Scale = whole step - whole step - half step - whole step - whole step - whole step - half step or w

- w - h - w - w - w – h Or we can write

whole whole half whole whole whole half

step step step step step step step

1 to 2 to 3 to 4 to 5 to 6 to 7 to 8

Now, assign numbers to each note of a major scale, always assign number one to the root note. For example, in the C major scale the root note is C with number 1 and other numbers will be assigned as follows:

C = 1

D = 2

E = 3

F = 4

© 2004 Virtual Music Publications – All Rights Reserved=-098479346’ Keyboard In Western Style ID-5566


G = 5

A = 6

B = 7

C = 8

So, based upon this sequence a C major scale would be comprised of the following tones: C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C (in a single octave).

Understanding Tones and Semitones.

To understand how to find other major scales we need to look more closely at the construction of our C Major Scale. Have a look at the keyboard again. By adding in the black notes, we can see that there are actually 12 notes between one C and the next. The distance from one of these 12 to its neighbor is known as a semitone. If you have a keyboard, try playing up the keyboard from one C to the next, playing all 12 notes.

Notice how some notes of the C major scale have another note in between them (eg. from C to D there is a black note in between), whereas some don't (e.g. from E to F). The gap from C to D consists of two semitones, and is known as a tone. This pattern of tones and semitones is how the scale gets its particular colour. The major scale is formed out of the following mixture of tones and semitones or we can say a major scale consists of 7 different notes. The intervals from note to note of the major scale in any key are:

tone - tone - semitone - tone - tone - tone - semitone Finding other major scales

To find any other major scale, you simply repeat the pattern of tones and semitones, starting from the note in question.

For example, let's try D major Scale which is: D E F# A B C# 1

First note D


Tone higher: E


Tone higher: F#


Semitone higher: G


Tone higher: A


Tone higher: B


Tone higher: C#


Semitone higher: D

(Just in case you're not clear, F# indicates the black note immediately above the F) Many students of keyboards dread scales. But without the knowledge of scales, you will never be able to create your original melodies. Scales teach you correct fingering patterns.

© 2004 Virtual Music Publications – All Rights Reserved=-098479346’ Keyboard In Western Style ID-5566


Practice each hand separately, before attempting to play both hands! The fingering for the RH is: ascending 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 and descending 5 4 3 2 1 3 2 1. As you ascend, tuck your thumb under your third finger and complete the scale using finger numbers 1 2 3 4 5. When you descend, cross your third finger over your thumb and complete the scale using finger numbers 3 2 1. LH fingering: ascending 5 4 3 2 1 3 2 1 and descending 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5. The same instructions apply regarding tucking the thumb under the second finger when descending and crossing the third finger over the thumb when ascending. Throughout your study of the keyboard, especially when you are learning new music, or an exercise, it is important that you practice each hand separately at first. Once your finger muscles have memorized the movement (s) you may then practice with both hands. But remember to practice slowly at first. How can you run, if you can’t walk?

Getting Use to Keyboard Finger Movements:

Place your right hand on a tabletop or your thigh. Slowly, tap each finger, starting with your thumb and proceed with fingers 2-5. (I.e. 1-2-3-4-5, 1-2-3-4-5 etc.) Repeat this at least ten times. Raise your fingers very high. Now practice starting with your 5th finger and proceed with fingers 4-1. (i.e. 5-4-3-2-1, 5-4-3-2-1 etc.) Have you noticed that when you’re tapping fingers 1-5, you are moving up; and on the other hand when you are tapping fingers 5-1, you are moving down. These 5-finger movements are needed to play the keyboard well. Now here’s where the fun begins! Repeat the instructions above using your left hand. That’s right. If you are “right-handed”, your left hand is naturally weaker than your right. So, remember, a keyboardist is only as good as his weaker hand. Therefore, you must spend more practice- time using the weaker hand/fingers.

1. C major scale

C - D - E - F - G - A - B - C

2. Db major scales

Db - Eb - F - Gb - Ab - Bb - C - Db

3 D major scale

D - E - Gb - G - A - B - Db - D

4. Eb major scale

Eb - F - G - Ab - Bb - C - D - Eb

5. E major scale

E - Gb - Ab

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