Dr. Madhusudan A. Savaikar
Rapid City, SD 57701 1-906-***-****
QUALIFIED BY: Seven months of research experience in single-molecule fluorescence microscopy, image
processing, localization, and seven years of research experience in experimental single-electron device
simulations using Monte Carlo techniques. Nano-device physics, super-resolution microscopy, and imaging
expertise with hands-on experience in optical and electron microscopy, set up of optical systems, algorithm
design, and software development for device simulations signifying multidisciplinary problem-solving skills.
Ph.D. in Engineering Physics, Michigan Technological University (MTU), Houghton, Michigan
GPA – 3.63 / 4.0, Fall 2013.
Dissertation Title: Stochastic Charge Transport in Multi-island Single-Electron Tunneling
Research Scientist I (Postdoctoral Researcher in Nanoscience and Nanoengineering), South Dakota
School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD, 07/2014-present.
NSF Project Title: Imaging Cellulose-Carbohydrate Binding Module Interactions with Nanometer Resolution
using Single Molecule Fluorescence Methods.
Set up a Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM) system consisting of
fluorescence microscope, lasers, and other optical devices such as beam expanders, beam splitters,
dichroic mirrors, LabVIEW-controlled shutters, etc., and aligned different laser beams for super
resolution imaging of biological samples.
Prepared biological samples such as caged fluorescein (CF), and carbohydrate-binding
modules (CBMs) tagged with green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) and photo-activated fluorescent
protein PAmCherry on Valonia cellulose nanocrystals for imaging.
Designed and carried out numerous Photo-Activated Localization Microscopy (PALM)
experiments on the above-mentioned samples using the TIRFM system after having optimized the
Extensively processed, and analyzed the imaged data in ImageJ, IDL, and MATLAB using
particle tracking algorithm for selecting and localizing single molecules to an accuracy of ~ 10nm.
Investigated different properties such as nearest-neighbor distribution, pair-correlation
function, and binding specificities of the CBMs onto cellulose microfibrils that influence the
accessibility of cellulase enzymes responsible for hydrolyzing the cellulose.
The characteristic features in CBM-valonia samples were reconstructed from the imaged data
showing nearest-neighbor distribution of ~ 100nm and particles localized to ~ 10nm.
Ph.D. Dissertation Research: Stochastic Charge Transport in Multi-island Single-Electron Tunneling
Dissertation Objective: Simulation of single-electron tunneling devices with an emphasis on explaining the
experimentally observed device properties, investigate the microscopic details, and suggest experiments to
test the conclusions drawn from the simulation studies.
Performed extensive single-electron device (SED) and single-electron transistor (SET)
simulations using SED simulation software SIMON, 2007-2008.
Savaikar, page 1 of 5
o Examined critical issues such as the circuit model, capabilities, and limitations of SIMON.
o Circuit model limits SIMON’s capabilities in explaining the terminal device characteristics in
terms of its physical features.
Development of a theoretical model and its implementation in the development of the
simulator, MITS, to model and simulate SEDs and SETs consisting of multiple nano-islands
(quantum dots), 2008-2010.
o Developed the theoretical framework based on semi-classical tunneling theory and kinetic
Monte Carlo method for multi-island device simulations.
o Designed and developed a new, robust multi-island transport simulator, MITS, which can
elucidate key linkages between the physical characteristics of the system and the resulting
current-voltage (IV) device characteristics.
o Developed parallel computing capabilities in MITS that decreased the simulation time thereby
enhancing MITS’s capabilities which are beneficial for high temperature device simulations.
Testing and validation of MITS model by simulating the experimental devices described
in the literature, 2010-2011.
o Tested MITS’s capabilities and validated its model by simulating the experimental devices
described in the literature consisting of a single-island and a one-dimensional (1D) chain device.
o Successfully performed the microscopic investigations of charge transport in a single-island
device and proposed the physical mechanisms that lead to the Coulomb blockade (CB) and the
Coulomb staircase (CS) structure in the device IV characteristics.
o Investigated the effects of gate voltage (VG), temperature (T), background charge, and the
structural disorder on the device characteristics such as the device threshold voltage ( Vth), current
staircase, current on/off ratio, and the Coulombic gate oscillations.
o In a single-island device whose physical features are well characterized, it is possible to
analytically predict the device characteristics by estimating the device current, device Vth,
staircase step positions, and width and height of the steps in the IV.
Comprehensive investigation of charge transport in disordered one-dimensional (1D)
chains of metallic nano-islands deposited on an insulating 1D substrate using MITS, 2011-
o Modeled and extensively simulated an experimental device fabricated by the collaborators that
consisted of a one-dimensional chain of gold nano-islands deposited on an insulating boron nitride
o Analyzed the effect of chain disorder arising from the distribution in island radii and junction
widths on junction charging energies and the device characteristics.
o Critically examined the effect of change in applied source-drain bias on junction potential
drops and tunneling junction resistances in the disordered chain.
o Investigated the effects of chain length on the device Vth and the current staircase structure.
With increasing chain length, the device Vth increases and the staircase steps are observed to be
more prominent in longer chains; properties observed in experimental devices.
o Examined the device IV scaling behavior; the characteristic behavior observed in experimental
devices. Investigated effects of disorder and the chain length on the scaling behavior.
o Investigated the effect of defects on the device characteristics and the Vth. Vth increases with
the increase in the number of defects in the device chain.
o Thoroughly probed and analyzed thermal effects on the current staircase, device V th, and the
device current at high and low biases for different chain lengths. Increase in temperature
decreases the device Vth and modulates the current staircase. Similar observations have been
made in experimental works.
o Proposed a new hypothesis that may explain the observed non-linear decrease in the device
threshold voltage with the increasing temperature in 1D chains.
o Successfully performed the microscopic investigation of charge transport in multi-island 1D
o Proposed and investigated new physical mechanisms that lead to the Coulomb blockade (CB)
giving a well-defined device threshold voltage (Vth), and the Coulomb staircase (CS) in multi-island
device IV characteristics.
o Overall IV characteristics in a strongly-coupled multi-island device with a random distribution in
island sizes and inter-island spacings are a result of a complex interplay among those factors that
affect the tunneling rates which are fixed a priori (island sizes, inter-island separations,
temperature, background charge, gate bias, etc.), and the evolving charge state of the system,
which changes as the applied source-drain bias (VSD) is changed.
Charge transport simulations in MITS of two-dimensional (2D) systems consisting of
randomly positioned multiple metallic nano-islands, 2012-2013.
o Generated physical models of experimental devices using hard-sphere Metropolis Monte
Carlo simulation methods with desired density of nano-islands and packing fraction.
o Examined the effect of distribution in inter-island spacings on the conducting paths in the
o Demonstrated the existence of a dominant conducting path (DCP) in a disordered 2D device
structure that carries majority of the device current, and makes the device effectively behave as a
o Investigated the effects of changes in source-drain bias voltage (VSD), gate voltage (VG) and
temperature (T) on the DCP, and the overall device IV characteristics.
o The DCP in a highly disordered system is sufficiently robust to withstand changes in V SD, VG,
and T although the local currents flowing through the DCP junctions may change.
o The increase in T may affect the DCP, and open new conducting paths depending on the
island sizes and the amount of disorder present in the system.
o Simulated the device behavior under the influence of lateral gate, and successfully
demonstrated the change in the device Vth with the change in VG.
o Demonstrated the decrease in the device Vth with the increasing temperature; property also
observed in experimental devices.
o Simulated a quasi-1D device made of only the DCP islands and the DCP junctions after
etching away the non-participating islands in the device. Investigated gate and thermal effects on
quasi-1D device characteristics.
o The quasi-1D device exhibits better gate control with smooth variation of V th with VG and a
larger device conductance. It also shows a smoother translational shift in the IV curves towards
lower VSD values with the increasing temperature.
o The quasi-1D structures fabricated after having etched away the non-participating islands from
multi-dimensional structures could be a better choice over multi-dimensional and 1D device
structures for switching applications and transistor operations.
Suggested specific experiments to the collaborators that may test the conclusions
drawn from the simulation studies, 01/2014-04/2014.
Research Project Trainee, National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India, 1999-
M.Sc. Project Team Leader: Repair and assembling of PVD unit, 01/1999-08/1999.
o Repaired and replaced parts of an old non-functional PVD unit.
o Assembled and operationalized the unit.
PROJECT MANAGEMENT EXPERIENCE
Graduate Student Research, Michigan Tech, 2007-2013
Savaikar, page 3 of 5
Planned and coordinated four research projects in consultation with the
computational research group.
Initiated and coordinated collaborations with experimental groups in the department
of electrical and computer engineering, and the department of physics to address experimental device
issues that may guide in improving the device design.
Wrote a proposal to NERSC, a division of LBNL, for computing time at its
Graduate Teaching Assistant, Department of Physics, Michigan Tech, 2005-2013
Faculty in Applied Physics / Physics, 2002-2005
o Rayeshwar Institute of Engineering and Technology (Affiliated to Goa University), Goa, India,
o Goa College of Engineering (Affiliated to Goa University), Goa, India, 2003-2004
o Institute of Shipbuilding and Technology, Goa, India, 2003
o SES Higher Secondary School, Goa, India, 2002-2003
Supervised family agribusiness, Goa, India, 2000-2002
Turned the business cost effective by employing methods such as assigning
individual responsibilities to the employees and enforcing stricter time schedules.
Motivated employees to be more productive by giving performance-based
Reduced the costs and increased the profits by increasing yield per acre and
plugging the leaks.
Solid State Devices, Solid State and Quantum Physics, Microfabrication Lab, Advanced
Scanning Electron Microscopy, Computational Physics, Material Physics, Electronic Materials,
Selected Topics in Nanotechnology, Electrodynamics, Electricity and Magnetism, Classical, Statistical,
and Mathematical Physics, Physics and Electronics Labs.
SKILLS and TECHNIQUES
Systems, Programming Skills, and Software Packages
LabVIEW, LaTeX, EndNote,
Windows, Linux, Mac OS X Origin
FORTRAN, C, C++ Image processing software
MATLAB / Simulink, IDL, MathematicaImageJ
Spectroscopic software WinSpec
SED simulation software packages SIMON,
MS office suite, iWork office suite
Adobe Acrobat, Photoshop, etc.
Fabrication, Characterization, Microscopy, and Imaging
Total Internal Reflection
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM),
Fluorescence (TIRF) Microscopy
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) Super-Resolution Microscopy
Focused Ion Beam (FIB) Photo-Activated Localization
Device IV characterization using SPA
Optical set-up, laser beam
Computing, Modeling, and Simulation
Device modeling and simulations
Theoretical development, algorithm Image processing, feature selection,
design, mathematical modeling localization, particle tracking
Physics-based modeling, multi-physics High performance serial and parallel
simulations, software tool development computing
Monte Carlo techniques Physics and engineering simulations
Statistical and numerical techniques Solid state, material, and quantum physics
Optics and electronics
Stochastic charge transport
OTHER ACCOMPLISHMENTS / AWARDS / ACTIVITIES / INTERESTS
The research work on boron nitride nanotubes functionalized with gold quantum dots received
wide coverage in the news outlets such as Phys.org, CBS Detroit, and IEEE Spectrum.
Awarded travel grant, and the departmental Miles fellowship for fall 2013.
Other interests include business, sports, politics, debates, reading, driving, and traveling.
APS member IEEE member MRS member
Madhusudan A. Savaikar, Douglas Banyai, Paul L. Bergstrom, and John A. Jaszczak,
“Simulation of charge transport in multi-island tunneling devices: Application to disordered one-
dimensional systems at low and high biases,” J. Appl. Phys. 114, 114504 (2013).
Lee, C. H., Qin, S., Savaikar, M. A., Wang, J., Hao, B., Zhang, D., Banyai, D., Jaszczak, J. A.,
Clark, K. W., Idrobo, J.-C., Li, A.-P., and Yap, Y. K., “Room-Temperature Tunneling Behavior of Boron
Nitride Nanotubes Functionalized with Gold Quantum Dots,” Adv. Mater. 25, 4544 (2013).
J. A. Jaszczak, M. A. Savaikar, D. R. Banyai, Boyi Hao, Dongyan Zhang, P. L. Bergstrom, A-
P. Li, J.-C. Idrobo, and Y. K. Yap, “Simulation of Charge Transport in Disordered Assemblies of Metallic
Nano-Islands: Application to Boron Nitride Nanotubes Functionalized with Gold Quantum Dots,” MRS
Proceedings, 17, 1700 (2014).
Madhusudan A. Savaikar, Paul L. Bergstrom, and John A. Jaszczak, “Physical Mechanisms
Leading to the Coulomb Blockade and Coulomb Staircase Structures in Strongly Coupled Multi-Island
Single-Electron Devices,” submitted.
Boyi Hao, Anjana Asthana, Paniz Khanmohammadi Hazaveh, Paul L. Bergstrom, Douglas
Banyai, Madhusudan A. Savaikar, John A. Jaszczak, and Yoke Khin Yap, “New Flexible Channels
for Tunneling Field Effect Transistors by Quantum Dots Functionalized Boron Nitride Nanotubes,”
Savaikar, page 5 of 5
Madhusudan A. Savaikar, Paul L. Bergstrom, and John A. Jaszczak, “Analytical Study of
Charge Transport in a Single-island Transistor Device,” in preparation.
Madhusudan A. Savaikar, Paul L. Bergstrom, and John A. Jaszczak, “Thermal Effect on the
Coulomb Blockade Behavior of a One Dimensional Chain Device,” in preparation.
John A. Jaszczak, Madhusudan A. Savaikar, Banyai R. Banyai, Boyi Hao, Zhang Dongyan,
Paul L. Bergstrom, An-Ping Li, Juan-Carlos Idrobo, Yoke Khin Yap, “Simulation of Charge Transport in
Disordered Assemblies of Metallic Nano-Islands: Application to Boron Nitride Nanotubes
Functionalized with Gold Quantum Dots (QDs-BNNTs),” invited talk, MRS spring meeting, San
Francisco, CA, April 21-25, 2014, Symposium MM3.01.
Madhusudan A. Savaikar, “Stochastic Charge Transport in Multi-island Single-electron
Tunneling Devices,” invited talk, Nano science and engineering seminar, SDSMT, Rapid City, SD,
February 06, 2014.
Madhusudan A. Savaikar, “Single-electron Device Behavior,” invited talk to the solid-state
device class, Department of electrical and computer engineering, Michigan Tech, Houghton, MI, April
Madhusudan A. Savaikar, Douglas Banyai, Yoke Khin Yap, Paul L. Bergstrom, and John A.
Jaszczak, “Modeling of Charge Transport in a One-Dimensional Chain of Metallic Nano-islands on an
Insulating Wire: The Effect of Chain-length and Temperature on Device Characteristics,’’ colloquium
talk, graduate student council research colloquium, Michigan Tech, Houghton, MI, spring 2013.
Madhusudan A. Savaikar, Douglas Banyai, Paul L. Bergstrom, and John A. Jaszczak,
“Modeling of Charge Transport in a One-Dimensional Chain of Metallic Nano-islands on an Insulating
Wire: The Effect of Chain-length and Temperature on Device Characteristics,” poster presentation,
MRS fall meeting, Boston, MA, November 25-30, 2012, Paper FF13.18.
Madhusudan A. Savaikar, Paul L. Bergstrom, and John A. Jaszczak, “Development of MITS:
Testing, Validation, and Application to the Simulation of IV Behavior in a 1D Chain of Islands,”
colloquium talk, graduate physics research colloquium, Michigan Tech, Houghton, MI, spring 20012.
Madhusudan A. Savaikar, Paul L. Bergstrom, and John A. Jaszczak, “Modeling of Multi-
Island Single-Electron Transistor (SET) Devices,” colloquium talk, graduate physics research
colloquium, Michigan Tech, Houghton, MI, spring 20011.
Madhusudan A. Savaikar, Paul L. Bergstrom, and John A. Jaszczak, “IV Behavior of Multi-
Island Single-Electron Devices using SIMON,” colloquium talk, graduate physics research colloquium,
Michigan Tech, Houghton, MI, spring 2010.
Madhusudan A. Savaikar, Paul L. Bergstrom, and John A. Jaszczak, “Conduction through
Multi-Dot Quantum System,” poster presentation, graduate physics research colloquium, Michigan
Tech, Houghton, MI, spring 2008.