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Hargeysa, Somaliland, Somalia
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200_300
Posted:
December 14, 2018

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Social disorganization

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Introduction page 2

Definition .pag3

Characteristics of social disorganization … ..page4-5

Causes of social disorganization . . page 5-7

Result of social disorganization……… …… page8

Conclusion .page 8

Reference . . . page 9

Introduction

Social disorganization breaking or dismentling or dispersing of the social system, social institutions and social relationships. It increases when there is no general agreement and individuals define the important interests of the society in purely individualistic terms. Social disorganisation is the process opposed to social organisation. Social organisation Some Fundamental Concepts’, is an orderly relationship of parts. The significance of this orderly arrangement lies in what it does.

When the parts of social structure do not perform their functions efficiently and effectively or perform them badly, there occurs an imbalance in society.

In a well organised society the various institutions are in a harmonious adjustment or, in other words, there exists functional balance between the various elements of the social structure. When there is a lack of adjustment and balance and institutions do not function in a manner that satisfies all the individuals, we can speak of social disorganisation.

Social disorganisation, therefore, is to be considered in terms of functional disequilibrium, it is disequilibrium within customs, institutions, groups, communities and societies. Comparing social disorganisation with social organisation Queen and Harper write, “If social organisation means the development of relationships which persons and groups find mutually satisfactory, then disorganisation means their replacement by relationships which bring disappointment, thwarted wishes, irritation and unhappiness.” Social disorganisation often brings personal disorganisation, since a person is a social creation and his “self” a social product. Social disorganization is a theoretical perspective that explains ecological differences in levels of crime based on structural and cultural factors shaping the nature of the social order across communities.

Definition

social disorganization is a state of society characterized by the breakdown of effective social control resulting in a lack of functional integration between groups, conflicting social attitudes, and personal maladjustment.According to Emile Durkheim: is defined as a state of equilibrium and luck of social solidarity or consensus ( agreement or compromise) among the members.

The main characteristics of social disorganization:

Conflict of Mores and of Institutions.

Transfer of Functions from one Group to Another.

Individuation.

Change in the Role and Status of the Individuals.

Conflict of Mores and of Institutions:

every society has its mores and institutions which regulate the life of its members. With the passage of time, these mores and institution become obsolete. New ideals arise and new institutions are formed. The existing mores come into conflict with new mores.

Some people want to replace them by new ones. This destroys consensus in society. With the destruction of consensus, social organisation breaks up and social disorganisation ensues. In the Indian society we can see such conflict of mores and institutions.

Transfer of Functions from one Group to Another:

In an organised society the functions of different groups are defined and predetermined. But as society is dynamic, the functions of one group are transferred to another. Thus most of the functions once performed by the family stand transferred today to nurseries, schools and clubs. This has caused family disorganisation. Thus transfer of functions from one group to another is characteristic of social disorganisation.

Individuation:

Man today thinks in terms of self. The functions of different groups are determined in purely individualistic terms. Under the impact of individualism every person thinks upon all the important matters of life from his individual viewpoint. The young men and women want to take decisions on such important matters as marriage, occupation, recreation and morality in accordance with their individual prejudices, interests and attitudes. This trend has set in a dangerous process of social disorganisation.

Change in the Role and Status of the Individuals:

In an organised society the roles and status of people are defined and fixed. Their functions are well defined and they carry on the tasks allotted to them. They enjoy the status in accordance with their role in society. A primitive society suffers less from disorganisation because it is stable and its members follow the professions allocated to them.;

But in course of time our norms change which also brings a change in the roles and statuses of the people. They no longer are treated as fixed and the people begin to choose from amongst the different role which causes disequilibrium. Thus the women are no longer confined to homes.

They work in offices. This change in the roles of women has caused family disorganisation. The Government of India is making efforts to raise the status of the lower classes which has led to disorganisation in the caste system. Faris writes, “Social disorganization is the disruption of the natural relation of persons to a degree that interferes with the performance of the accepted tasks of the group.”

Causes of social Disorganization

Division of labour.

Violation of social roles

Industrialization

Cultural lag

Social change

War

Division of Labour:

According to Emile Durkheim, extreme division of labour is the cause of social disorganization. Division of labour is generally productive of social solidarity; but when it becomes excessive and complex then solidarity diminishes or disappears and social equilibrium is disturbed. Extreme division of labour gives rise to economic crises of all kinds, class struggles, and industrial strife, and leads to the demoralization of individuals, the family, and the community. “In short” as Koenig puts, “it produces an abnormal, anomalous situation in which the different parts do not integrate but are at cross purposes with each other and a state of normlessness

Violation of Social Rules:

According to W.I. Thomas and Znaniecki, when the rules and regulations of society fail to keep individuals under control, social disorganisation sets in. In society there are always individuals who violate social rules. This has a disorganizing effect upon social institutions, and unless the violations are checked; they may eventually lead to the death of institutions. According to Elliot and Merrill, “Without social values neither social organisation nor social disorganisation would exist.”

The changes in social values come into conflict with old values. The new values take time to adjust themselves in society. In the meantime social disorganisation spreads. The Traditional social values in Indian society have undergone a major change. As a result a major conflict between the old and new values has been created. Consequently, one sees the process of social disorganisation working rapidly.

Industrialization:

Industrialization creates conditions leading to social disorganisation. The effects of industrialization on family structure and relationships. Industrialization as seen in system had led to capitalism, exploitation and class conflicts. It has also contributed to unemployment, crime, immorality, family disorganisation, urbanisation and its evils.

Cultural Lag:

Ogburn maintained in Social Change that disorganisation is caused primarily by the unequal rates of change in the different parts of culture, resulting in a conflict between them. The disproportionate rates of change in various elements of the functionally interdependent component system of a changing social structure produce a condition of disequilibrium. This uneven change is due to the fact that inventions and discoveries are made more frequently in certain parts of culture, usually the material parts, than in others.

Science and technology, while bringing a more efficient material culture, more knowledge, and a higher standard of living, produce social disorganisation as well. Thus Ogburn says, “When 10,000 musicians are thrown out of jobs as a result of ‘canned’ music through the sound film introduced in cinemas, the result is the disorganisation of orchestras, and musicians who cannot find employment.”

Modern technology is changing at a rapid rate and creating important social changes with which our institutions have not yet caught up. Ogburn by analysing various social problems such as unemployment, poverty, crime, race conflict, family disorganisation and labour problems has shown that social disorganisation issues from the irregular changes of our culture.

Social change

Social change is dynamic. Its various elements, modes, mores, institutions, associations etc. are constantly changing. The older one will come into conflict with novel patterns, the result of which is that unanimity of society is destroyed.

War:

While war is the result of social disorganization, it is also its cause. War disturbs the economy of a country and introduces confusion and disorder in society. War leads to scarcity. There is economic crisis during the war period. It inflates the prices and the people resort to hoarding and black-marketing.

Further, war consumes the young men of the country. As a result young women are widowed. They are left with none to support them. That tends to weaken the sexual ties. War also affects the male-female ratio. Social values are also injured.

Result of social disorganization

Inability to solve problems and pursue goals.

Parent less to able to socialize and youth.

Breakdown in surveillance

Conclusion

Consequently community is disorganized which is leads to antisocial behavior and criminal activist .Breakdown in the social controls of the community. when the rules and regulations of society fail to keep individuals under control, social disorganisation sets in. the social disorganization theory is one of the most important theories developed by the Chicago School, related to ecological theories. The theory directly links crime rates to neighborhood ecological characteristics; a core principle of social disorganization theory is that place matters. In other words, a person's residential location is a substantial factor shaping the likelihood that that person will become involved in illegal activities.

Reference

Syristova, Eva a kol. Normalita osobnosti. Avicenum, Prague 1972, p. 183.

Jump up ^ Sampson, Harvard.edu

Jump up ^ Bursik, Robert J. "Social Disorganization and Theories of Crime and Delinquency: Problems and Prospects." Criminology 26.4 (1988): 519-52. Web.

Jump up ^ Shaw, Clifford R. and McKay, Henry D. Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1969

Jump up ^ Bursik, Robert J. "Social Disorganization and Theories of Crime and Delinquency: Problems and Prospects." Criminology 26.4 (1988): 519-52. Web.

Jump up ^ Bursik, Robert J., and Harold G. Grasmick. Neighborhoods and Crime: The Dimensions of Effective Community Control. Lexington, 1993. Web.

Jump up ^ Lee, Matthew T., and Ramiro Martinez JR. "Social Disorganization Revisited: Mapping the Recent Immigration and Black Homicide Relationship in Northern Miami." Sociological Focus 35.4 (2002): 363-80. Taylor & Francis, Ltd. Web.

Jump up ^ Ramiro Jr, Martinez, and Abel Valenzuela Jr. "Immigration and Asian Homicide Patterns in Urban and Suburban San Diego." Immigration and Crime: Race, Ethnicity, and Violence. New York: New York UP, 2006 Web.

Bursik, Robert J., and Harold Grasmick. 1993. Neighborhoods and crime: The dimensions of effective community control. New York: Lexington



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