M.V. B. Reddy
La Verne, CA 91750
Ph. D. (Plant Pathology) 1985-1989 University of Mysore (India)
Thesis: Integrated management of Sclerospora graminicola, causal agent of pearl millet downy mildew.
M. Phil. (Seed Pathology), 1983-1985, University of Mysore
Thesis: Identification and control of seed borne pathogens of rice, maize, sorghum and pearl millet.
M. Sc. (Plant Pathology), 1981-1983, University of Mysore
B. Sc. (Biological Sciences and chemistry), 1977-1980, Andhra University (India)
Senior Biologist, Los Angeles County (2008-2009)
• Dection of bacterial, fungal and viral diseases of plants.
• Landscape plant pest and disease evaluation and suggesting environmentally friendly methods of control.
• Developing strategies and developing cultural and agronomic methods for pest control.
• Reviewing the efficacies of various pest control treatments and recommending environmentally friendly effective ones.
• Conducting Vegetation mapping in proposed developments by GPS and other sources.
• Review, analyze and process environmental documents mandated by Federal and State laws and regulations.
• Give expert information to the public, colleagues, industry representatives, and other agencies.
• Conduct correspondence and exchanges information with other specialists in his own and related fields.
• Supervise other professionals engaged in scientific activities, or acts as lead scientist in coordinating various research projects, as needed
Director of Operations, Miramar Wholesale Nurseries (2007-2008)
• Technical involvement on plant health inspections of both outgoing and incoming plant material, such as cuttings, container plants and trees.
• Dealing with phytosanitary certification procedures with county Ag commissioners office and if needed with USDA-APHIS
• Evaluation of plant health for fungal, bacterial, viral and nematode diseases and suggesting control measures.
• Abiotic disorders of ornamental and landscape plants.
• Tree production and quality maintenance, technical expertise on soil development and fertilizer application.
• Research and guidance to landscape sales center
• Labor management and cost of operations
• Plant protection guidance
• Safety and regulatory liaison
• Inventory control and plant production
• Sales forecast
Plant Pathologist, Monrovia Nursery Company, Azusa, CA.
• Identification and control of root rots caused by Phytophthora, Pythiuum, Rhizoctonia pathogens on various ornamental plants.
• Prpearation of samples for PCR and ELISA methods for fungal, bacterial viral disease detection from plant tissue.
• Conducting research on the control of Phytophthora and other root rot cuasing pathogens by soil amendements, compost, pH and other Physical and chemical parameters.
• Isolation of Phytophthora from irrigation water to determine the levels and to recommend follow up treatments.
• Suppressing the growth of Phytophthora in recycled water
• Evaluating the efficacy of various water treatment methods on water borne Phytophthora control.
• Conducting research trials to determine the efficacy of new fungicides, biocontrol agents for Phytophthora control
• Identification and recommending control treatments for fungal, bacterial, viral and nematode diseases of ornamentals.
• Development of strategies for prevention and control of some of the introduced diseases such as P.ramorum.
• Overall in charge of plant pathology laboratory in sample receiving from different locations of the company from east and west coast locations, identifying the diseases and recommending control treatments.
• Conducting research experiments from time to time to improve soil conditions, to introduce customer friendly plant growth promoting bacteria, biocontrol agents and other low risk disease and pest control agents.
• Analyzing the soil EC and pH levels to recommend correctional levels supervising a soil scientist, and two laboratory assistants in day to day research conducted on improvement of soil quality, water and irrigation across the nursery.
• Participating in the management meetings.
Research Associate (1999-2001)
Department of Plant Pathology, NYSAES,
Cornell University, Geneva
Project: Diagnosis and integrated management of fire blight of apple .
• Conducting filed trials to determine the levels of resistance of various apple root stocks to fire blight
• Conducting filed trials to determine the levels of resistance of various apple varieties to shoot and flower blight
• Conduced field as well as glass house trials to evaluate the efficacy of growth regulators, SAR inducers, biological control agents and antibiotics for fire blight control of apple.
• Screened several products like fungicides, biologicals and SAR inducers and antibiotics for disease control
• Conducted apple nursery surveys to assess root stock blight.
• Coordinated field trials with county extension personnel, farmers and industry representatives.
• Participated in county extension programs, field days for transfer of new findings and to provide plant protection guidance to growers.
• Evaluated the transgenic resistance in apples by field inoculation of the pathogen.
• Studied the epidemiology of the rootstock phase of the disease and host resistance under field conditions.
• Identification of plant pathogens by molecular methods.
Research Associate (1996-1998)
Horticultural Research Center
Laval University, Quebec (Canada)
Project: Control of post-harvest diseases of fruits and vegetables
• Conducted research on antimicrobial substances (chitosan, phytochemicals and essential oils) for integrated management of post-harvest diseases of fruits and vegetables and quality improvement.
• Studied the efficacy of chitosan seed treatment against seed-borne F.graminearum in wheat, seed transmission and seed quality.
• Conducted studies on host-pathogen interactions and antimicrobial mechanisms of action of potential anti-microbial compounds.
• Supervised two graduate students.
Research Associate (1994-1998)
Department of Plant Science
Macdonald Campus of McGill University (Canada)
Project: Epidemiological and non chemical approaches of disease control of field crops
• Conducted research on seed pathology and disease resistance in lupines (Phoma and Colletotrichum) and soybeans (Phomopsis).
•Developed a simple cotyledonary resistance screening assay for lupines.
• Conducted research on biological control of Septoria blight in celery and damping off of cucurbits.
• Epidemiological studies were conducted to develop disease-forecasting models for downy mildew of lettuce.
• Conducted research on physical seed treatments (microwaves) to eradicate seed borne pathogens of wheat and soybean.
Associate Plant Pathologist (1989-1994)
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)
Asia Center, Patancheru, India.
•Screened several germplasm lines of cereals, millets, oil seeds and pulses for resistance to fungal, bacterial and viral diseases.
•Maintained close coordination with breeders to select and incorporate host resistance from wild to cultivated lines in conventional breeding programs.
• Examined the seed health of ICRISAT germplasm for quarantine fitment and coordinated with Govt. Scientists for the issue of phytosanitary certificates.
• Maintained post-entry quarantine isolation area for import germplasm.
• Conducted large-scale field and glass house pesticide spray trials against diseases, insects and weeds of ICRISAT mandate crops.
•Trained international staff in resistance screening techniques and regulatory aspects of plant transfer.
Training in Personnel management
•Attended in house personnel management training course organized by Personnel Division of ICRISAT.
Taught Mycology and Plant Pathology to M.Sc. students and Seed Pathology to M.Phil candidates at the University of Mysore, India..
SCHOLARSHIPS and AWARDS
Post-Doctoral Associate (NSERC, Government of Canada)
Merit Scholarship for pursuing Ph.D. (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Govt. of India)
Special assistance scholarship for pursuing M.Phil. (University Grants Commission, Govt. of India)
• American Phytopathological Society
• Canadian Phytopathological Society
Mercier, J., Baka.M,. Reddy.B,. Corcuff.R and Arul.J 2001. Short-wave ultraviolet irradiation for control of decay caused by Botrytis cinerea in bell pepper: induced resistance and germicidal effect. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.126: 128-133.
Reddy, M.V.B., Angers, P. and Castaigne, F. and Arul, J., 2000. Chitosan effect on black mold rot and pathogenic factors produced by Alternaria alternata in post harvest tomatoes. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 125: 742-747.
Reddy, M.V.B., Norelli, J.L. and Aldwinckle, H.S. 2000. Compatibility of biological control and induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR) for integrated control of fire blight of apple. Phytopathology 90:S64.
Norelli , J.L., Borejsza-Wysocka, E.E.,. Reddy , M.V.B. and Ko, K. 2000. Evaluation and inheritance of resistance to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) of lytic protein
transgenic Royal Gala apple. Phytopathology 90:S56.
Reddy, M.V.B, Belkacemi.K,,Castaigne.F. and Arul.J 2000. Effect of pre-harvest chitosan sprays on postharvest infection of strawberries by B.cinerea and fruit quality. Post-harvest Biology and Technology 20:39-51.
Reddy, M.V.B., Arul, J., Barka, A., Richard, C., Angers P. and Castaigne, F. 1998. Effect of chitosan on toxin production by A.alternata fsp. lycopersici. Biocontrol Science and Technology 8:33-43.
Reddy, M.V.B., Angers, P., Gosselin, A. and Arul, J. 1998. Characterization and use of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris against Botrytis cinerea and Rhizopus stolonifer in Straw berry fruit. Phytochemistry 47: 1515-1520.
Reddy, M.V.B, Raghavan, G.S.V., Kushalappa, A.C. and Paulitz, T. 1998. Effect of microwave treatment on seed borne Gibberella zeae (=F graminearum) in wheat and seed quality. J. Agricultural Engineering 71: 113-117.
Reddy, M.V.B., Arul.J., Angers.P and Couture. L. 1998. Chitosan treatment of wheat seeds induces resistance to Fusarium graminearum and improves seed quality. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47: 1208-1216.
Reddy, M.V.B., Atlin, G. and Paulitz, T. 1996. Response of white lupine cultivars to Phoma sp., and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides . Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 18:272-278.
Reddy, M.V.B., Shetty, H.S. and Reddy, M.S. 1996. Residue free treatments of metalaxyl for effective control of pearl millet downy mildew. Discovery and innovation, 8: (1) 53-57.
Reddy, M.V.B,, Kushalappa. A.C., Raghavan, G.S.V. and Stephenson, M.M.P. 1995. Use of Microwave energy for the eradication of Diaporthe phaseolorum in soybean and its effect on seed quality. J. Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy 30 (4) 199-204.
Reddy, M.V.B., Shetty, H.S. and Reddy, M.S. 1993. Mobility to metalaxyl in soil and uptake by pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke). Journal of Plant Protection in the Tropics 10 (3): 183-189.
Reddy, M.V.B., Ghanekar, A.M. and Chakraborty, S.K. 1992. Association of M. Phaseolina and Phomopsis sp. with pigeonpea seed. International Pigeonpea News Letter, ICRISAT, (15) 21-23.
Reddy, M.V.B, Shetty, H.S. and Reddy, M.S. 1990. Mobility and persistence of metalaxyl residues in pearl millet. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 45 (2) 250-257.
Reddy, M.V.B, Shetty, H.S. and Krishna kumari, M.K. 1990. Short time dietary toxicity of metalaxyl to Indian albino rats. Journal of Pesticide Research, 2 (2) 139-144.
Reddy, M.V.B, Shetty, H.S. and Reddy, M.S. 1989. Mobility and efficacy of metalaxyl against of downy mildew of pearl millet growing in different types of soil. International Journal of Tropical Plant Diseases, 7:97-104.
Reddy, M.V.B. Shetty, H.S. and Krishna kumari, M.K. 1989. Acute toxicity of metalaxyl to Indian albino rats, Comparative Physiology and Ecology, 15 (2) 51-57.
Reddy, M.V.B, Shetty, H.S. and Raju, G.S.N. 1985. Persistence of metalaxyl against leaching in treated pearl millet seed, Milwai News Letter (4): Page 11.
Reddy, M.V.B, Raju, G.S.N. Visweswaraiah, K. and Shetty, H.S. 1985. Degradation of BHC in stored seeds of rice, maize and sorghum. Chemical Industry News, 30, 389-391.
Reddy, M.V.B., Shetty, H.S. and Raju, G.S.N. 1985. Effect of BHC on stored insect pests of rice, maize, sorghum and pearl millet. Pest Management, 5 (30): 17-19.
Reddy. M.V.B, Arul Joseph, Castaigne Francois and Kasaai Mohammad R. 1997. Effect of chitosan on tissue maceration and production of macerating enzymes by Erwinia carotovora in potato. Advances in Chitin Science, Jacques Andre Publishers, Lyon, France.
Arul, J.,Ahmed El Ghaouth and Reddy.M.V.B.1998 Use of chitosan for the control of postharvest diseases in fresh fruits and vegetables. Proceedings of 43rd Atlantic Fisheries Technological Conference, St. Johns, NF. Canada. F.Shahidi (Ed.).
Reddy, M.V.B., Norelli, J.L. and Aldwinckle, H.S. 2003. Control of Fire Blight infections on apple blossoms. Submitted to Fungicide and Nematicide Tests.
Reddy, M.V.B, Norelli, J.L. and Aldwinckle, H.S. 2003. Control of Fire Blight infections on apple shoots: Effects on shoot growth and fruit russeting. Submitted to Fungicide and Nematicide Tests.
Reddy, M.V.B, Arul, J., Truedel, J. and Asselin, A. 2003. Effect of chitosan on macerating enzyme production by Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora in potato tissue. Submitted to Journal of Phytopathology.
Plant pathology projects dealt at Monrovia nursery and Completed reports
Reddy, M.V.B. 2004. Natural Disease Suppressiveness of different growing mixes currently in use at Azusa, Visalia and Oregon locations. Research report # 1164
Reddy, M.V.B. 2004. Pre- and post-canning Suppression of Rhizoctonia damage on Grevillea lanigera ‘Mt. Tamboritha.Research report # 1166.
Reddy, M.V.B. 2003. Integrated management of Phytophthora root rot in tropical Hibiscus varieties. Research report # 1153
Reddy, M.V.B. 2003. Evaluation of chemical products and pecan and pistachio shell mulches for the control of moss growth in one gallon Camellia containers. Research report # 10902
Reddy, M.V.B. 2003 Efficacy of Companion® and Essential® Plus in improving plant stand and survival of Cupressus sempervirens Tiny Tower® PP 12933 in propagation. Research report # 10203
Reddy, M.V.B. 2003. Control of die back and death in Coprosma ‘Rainbow Surprise’.Research report # 1141
Reddy, M.V.B. 2003. Observed galls on Juniperus chinensis 'Torulosa' and Eucalyptus cinerea are not crown gall caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Research report # 1156
Reddy,M.V.B. 2003. MEffect of different treatments on wilting and death of Ceanothus × ‘Dark Star’.Report # 1143
Reddy, M.V.B. 2003. Bottom browning and death of Cupressus semprevirens TinyTowerTM PPAF Is it a disease or a disorder caused by water stress during summer months?. Research report # 1134.
Keller, J. and Reddy,M.V.B. 2003. Azusa camellia soil mix trials, 2000 – 2002. Research report # 1139.
Reddy, M.V.B. 2002. Control of Rhizoctonia twig blight and death of Cupressus sempervirens Tiny TowerTM PPAF and the potential of RootShield® or PlantShield® bio-fungicides in improving rooting and establishment of plants in propagation. Research report # 1130.
Reddy, M.V.B. 2002. Naiad, a soil penetrant and wetting agent, is a potential alternative to Subdue Maxx for Phytophthora control in water and soil. Research report # 1128.
Reddy, M.V.B. 2002.Control of leaf spot on Scabiosa columbaria ‘Giant Blue’. Researchreport # 1118.
Reddy, M.V.B. 2002. Control of bacterial blight of Syringa vulgaris ‘Lavender Lady’. Research report # 1123.
Reddy, M.V.B. 2001. Control of Chlorotic disorder followed by Phytophthora infection in Erica verticillata ‘Ruby Lace’. Research report # 1114.
Reddy, M.V.B. 2001. Assessment of Phytotoxic effects of Pendulum granular and Daconil on Camellias.Research report # 1099.
Reddy, M.V.B. 2001. Study of the cause of frond thickening and greening in fern: Alsophila australis. Research report # 1102.
Completed projects at Monrovia nursery:
Project 10103: Control of root knot nematode infestation by physical, chemical, and biological methods.
Purpose: Plants were subjected to hot water, neem cake and oxamyl treatments, grown for 4 weeks and evaluated for root knot nematodes.
Status: Preliminary data on soil treatment of neem cake and oxamyl showed reduced number of nematode lesions on roots. Plants subjected to hot water treatment at 120 F for 30 minutes did not establish well. A second trial was conducted and a visual evaluation is complete. Roots were assessed for the presence of nematodes at the UCR extension laboratory. The number of nematode-related galls have been counted and the data are being analyzed.
Project 10403: Comparison of Biogrow mycorrhizae with a custom-made product from Horticulture Alliance
Purpose: To compare our current source of mycorrhizae with that of another supplier.
Status: No difference was observed in plant height. Root samples were sent to an outside laboratory for colonization counts and no significant difference was observed between the two products.
Project 10803: Screening different fungicides and a phosphorus based fertilizer formulation (Phortress) for the control of Phytophthora sp.
Purpose: To investigate alternative treatment to Subdue for Phytophthora control
Status: Inoculated Rhododendrons appeared very sensitive to infection and a lot of plants died. The final evaluation of Rhododendrons showed that fenamidone, Banol, and Subdue were equally effective. No mortality was evident in Azaleas.
Project 10503: Effect of supplemental fertilizer, insecticide sprays and cultural practices including growing plants in houses (temperature) on symptom expression by Canna Yellow Mottle Virus (CaYMV)
Purpose: To determine the different cultural and chemical treatments that can control/suppress CaYMV symptoms on TropicannaTM PP.
Status: It is interesting to note that plants from all treatments exhibited normal growth in the summer, probably due to increased temperatures. Plants were pruned to see if fresh growth will be free from mottling, and to observe any other treatment effects. No difference was evident between the treatments.
Project 10603: Effect of hot water treatment of rhizomes on the expression Canna Yellow Mottle Virus (CaYMV) symptoms in new growth
Purpose: To determine if hot water treatment can suppress CaYMV in Canna TropicannaTM PP
Status: Rhizomes from symptomatic plants were subjected to 10 and 15 minutes of hot water treatment at 120F and planted in 2 gallon cans. No sprouting is evident from the 15 minute treatment as it was apparently lethal. The 10 minute treatment was 50% lethal. Both the control and the 10 minute treatment showed typical virus symptoms later in the experiment.
Project 11003: Effect of compost tea on winter foliar disease control and improvement of plant growth.
Purpose: To determine if compost tea prepared from our compost or an outside vendor really helps in disease control and in promoting plant growth.
Status: Grapes, Coreopsis, roses, and Hydrangea with downy or powdery mildew will be treated with various “soft” disease control materials such as compost tea, Actigard (SAR inducer), neem oil, Heritage, Serenade, Phortress, Fosphite, or Formula 1. Data has been collected and is being analyzed.
Project 10204: Effect of Fosphite + calcium treatments and bark mulch treatments on winter wilting of tropical Hibiscus varieties.
Purpose: To determine if covering the can surface with bark to insulate the collar region or upper root surface from freezing, or Fosphite + calcium treatments will improve plant stand during winter.
Status: Mulching and phosphite treatments seem to help the plants avoid winter damage.
Project 10304: Control of Cylindrocladium infection in rose liners.
Purpose: To test chemical and biological materials for control of this disease.
Status: There was clear evidence that treatments such as Medallion, Oxybooster, and Fosphite controlled the damage resulting in increased growth rate and survival of plants.
Project 10703: Effect of wetting agents, fungicides, SAR inducer and antistress formulation on the stand and control of summer damage in Cupressus sempervirens Tiny Tower® PP and Syringa varieties.
Purpose: To determine if different treatments can strengthen plants to resist summer stress and control summer losses by root rots and bacterial blight.
Status: Treatments are in progress and the experiment will continue through summer. Experiment is completed and results are pending.
Project 10104: Effect of acidic and porous soil mixes, compost, or increased levels of calcium and phosphorus on winter damage of Gardenia jasmonoides ‘Radicans’
Purpose: To determine if winter chlorosis, wilting and death of plants can be alleviated with different soil treatments.
Status: Plants from propagation were canned to two gallon containers with different treatments. The experiment is complete and no clear differences were observed.
(Workshops and Conferences attended)
2004 Annual meeting of the American Phytopathological Society, July 31-August 4, Anaheim,California.
2003 Annual meeting of the American Phytopathological Society, August 9-13, Charlotte, North Carolina.
2002 Annual meeting of the American Phytopathological Society, July 27-31, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
2001, Annual meeting of the American Phytopathological Society, August 25-29, Salt Lake City, Utah.
Bhaskra Reddy, Ronan Curcuff, Mohammad R. Kasaai, Francois Castaigne and Joseph Arul. 1999. Induction of resistance against gray mold rot in carrot roots by chitosan. APS/CPS Joint Annual Meeting, August 7-11, 1999, Montreal, Canada.
Bhaskra Reddy, Ronan Curcuff, Mohammad R. Kasaai, Francois Castaigne and Joseph Arul. 1999. Induction of resistance against gray mold rot in carrot roots by chitosan. APS/CPS Joint Annual Meeting, August 7-11, 1999, Montreal, Canada.
Mohammad R. Kasaai, M. V. Bhaskara Reddy , Gérard Charlet and Joseph Arul. 1999.
Antifungal activity of chitosan and chitosan fragments with different molecular weights on postharvest pathogens. APS/CPS Joint Annual Meeting, August 7-11, 1999, Montreal, Canada.
K.M. Dagry, M.V. Bhaskara Reddy, Francois Castaigne, Joseph Arul and N.Benhamou. 1999. Inhibition of phytopathogenic bacteria by chitosan: Ultrastructural and cytochemical aspects. APS/CPS Joint Annual Meeting, August 7-11, 1999, Montreal, Canada.
7 International congress of plant pathology held at Edinburgh, Scotland, 9-16 August 1998 and presented a paper:
Mechanism of antifungal action of chitosan in postharvest tomato Alternaria interaction inhibiting the progress of blackmold rot.
American Society of Horticultural Science, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 23-16, July 1997 and presented two papers:
a). Effect of chitosan on growth and toxin production by Alternaria alternata f.sp. lycopersici.
b). Effect of chitosan on tissue maceration and production of macerating enzymes in by Erwinia carotovora in potato.
7th International chitin and chitosan conference, Sept 2-5, 1997, Lyon, France and presented a paper:
Effect of chitosan on tissue maceration and production of macerating enzymes by Erwinia carotovora in potato (full paper is accepted for publication in the proceedings of the conference).
Society for the Protection of Plants in Quebec, Canada, 6-7 June 1996. University of Laval, Quebec, Canada, Presented two papers:
a) Effect of microwave treatment on survival of F.graminearum in wheat seed and seed quality.
b) Effect of solar radiation on the survival of Bremia lactucae spores on lettuce.
Canadian Society of Plant Physiologists and Molecular Biologists, June 9-12, 1996, Quebec City, Canada.
55th Annual Northeastern Division meeting of American Phytopathological Society, October 18-20, 1995, Quebec City.
Annual meeting of Canadian Phytopathological Society, June 25-28, 1995 University of Toronto, Toronto, presented two papers:
a) Response of white lupine cultivars to C. gloeosporioides and Phoma sp.
b) Eradication of seed borne Diaporthe phaseolorum in soybean by microwave treatment and seed quality.
Annual Meeting of Canadian Phytopathological Society, July 30- August 3, 1994, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.
86th Annual Meeting of Quebec Society for the Protection of Plants, 9-10 June 1994, Montreal.
45th Annual Meeting of Indian Phytopathological Society and National Symposium on ¨Movement of genes for resistance and susceptibility. January 19-21, 1993. Akola, India.
Emerging Technologies for Hazardous Waste Management, I&EC Special Symposium, presented a paper on ¨Non hazardous use of pesticides for effective crop protection, October 1-3, 1991, Georgia, USA.
Second International Food Convention and Exhibition, February 18-21, 1989, and presented a paper: Evaluation of metalaxyl for the control of Oomycetes fungi, Central Food Technological Research Institute, (CFTRI), India.
International Symposium on Seed Science and Biotechnology, November 6-8, 1989, presented a paper on ¨Storage stability of metalaxyl in pearl millet seed its effect on seed germination and downy mildew control", Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI), India.
National Seminar on Seed Science and Technology, March 7-9, 1988, presented a paper on ¨The effect of Ridomil on pearl millet seed germination and vigor, Hissar, India.
United States - enforcement, division, client, employment, labor,...
Customer Service High School
United States - society, amy, kimberly, school, charleston, high,...
United States - legal, debt, law, society, court, research,...
United States - results, chemical, chemical engineering, polymer,...
United States - research, field, pathology, society, plant, nepal,...
Resume of Geric Magbitang
United States - chemistry, society, ir, seminar, bulacan, batangas,...
United States - society, state, complete, wesley, cause, fuel,...