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Security Access Control

Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States
January 28, 2013
Contact Info:
***** ******** ****************@****.***

NIST Interagency Report ****
September ****
System and Network Security
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Victoria Thompson
System and Network Security Acronyms
NIST Interagency Report 7581 and Abbreviations
September 2009
Victoria Thompson
Computer Security Division
Information Technology Laboratory
National Institute of Standards and Technology
Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8930
September 2009
U.S. Department of Commerce
Gary Locke, Secretary
National Institute of Standards and Technology
Patrick D. Gallagher, Deputy Director
Reports on Computer Systems Technology

The Information Technology Laboratory (ITL) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology
(NIST) promotes the U.S. economy and public welfare by providing technical leadership for the nation s
measurement and standards infrastructure. ITL develops tests, test methods, reference data, proof of
concept implementations, and technical analysis to advance the development and productive use of
information technology. ITL s responsibilities include the development of technical, physical,
administrative, and management standards and guidelines for the cost-effective security and privacy of
sensitive unclassified information in Federal computer systems. This Interagency Report discusses ITL s
research, guidance, and outreach efforts in computer security and its collaborative activities with industry,
government, and academic organizations.
National Institute of Standards and Technology Interagency Report 7581
32 pages (Sep. 2009)
Certain commercial entities, equipment, or materials may be identified in this
document in order to describe an experimental procedure or concept adequately.
Such identification is not intended to imply recommendation or endorsement by the
National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor is it intended to imply that the
entities, materials, or equipment are necessarily the best available for the purpose.

The authors, ************** of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Victoria
Thompson of Booz Allen Hamilton, wish to thank their colleagues who reviewed drafts of this report,
particularly Liz Lennon and Tim Grance of NIST. Thanks also go to individuals and organizations that
submitted suggestions, particularly Tim Kramer, Mark Seecof, Janine Paris, the U.S. Department of
Energy, and the U.S. Department of State. The authors also thank their colleagues who created acronym
and abbreviation lists for their publications that were subsequently used as sources of information for this
Trademark Information

All names are registered trademarks or trademarks of their respective companies.
Note to Reviewers

Reviewers are encouraged to submit additional acronyms and abbreviations related to system and network
security, particularly for emerging technologies, for consideration as additions to this report. All
suggestions and corrections should be sent to ****************@****.***.
Table of Contents

1. Introduction 1

2. Acronym and Abbreviation List 2
Numeric 2
A 2
B 3
C 4
D 6
E 7
F 8
G 9
H 10
I 11
J 13
K 13
L 13
M 14
N 15
O 17
P 17
Q 19
R 19
S 20
T 22
U 23
V 24
W 24
XYZ 25
Appendix A References 26

Appendix B Former Acronyms 27
1. Introduction

This report contains a list of selected acronyms and abbreviations for system and network security terms
with their generally accepted or preferred definitions. It is intended as a resource for federal agencies and
other users of system and network security publications.

The capitalization, spelling, and definitions of acronyms and abbreviations frequently vary among
publications. It is easy to understand why this happens. While some acronyms and abbreviations (e.g.,
WWW) have one universally recognized and understood definition within the domain of system and
network security, others (e.g., IA, MAC) have multiple valid definitions depending upon the context in
which they are used. Some acronyms bear little resemblance to their definitions, such as Modes of
Operation Validation System for the Triple DES Algorithm (TMOVS). Others use unexpected
capitalization or spelling (e.g., Electronic Business using eXtensible Markup Language [ebXML] and
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD]). As a result, acronyms,
abbreviations, and their definitions may be inaccurately or inconsistently defined by authors, perpetuating
errors and confusing or misleading readers.

This report is meant to help reduce these errors and confusion by providing the generally accepted or
preferred definitions of a list of frequently used acronyms and abbreviations. The list does not include all
system and network security terms, nor is it a compendium of every acronym and abbreviation found in
system and network security documents published by NIST. Readers should refer to each document s list
of acronyms and abbreviations (typically found in an appendix) for definitions applicable to that
particular document.

The following conventions have been used in the preparation of the list of acronyms and abbreviations in
this report.
Abbreviations and acronyms generally appear in all capital letters, although there are occasional
exceptions for example, meter (m) and decibels referenced to one milliwatt (dBm).
Technical terms are not capitalized unless they are proper nouns. Names of people, places, and
groups, and the titles of protocols, standards, and algorithms are considered proper nouns. For
example, certification and accreditation (C&A) is not capitalized, but Advanced Encryption Standard
(AES) is capitalized.
Collective nouns are not capitalized (e.g., wide area network [WAN]).
When two or more definitions of the same acronym or abbreviation are given, the acronym or
abbreviation is italicized and repeated for each definition. Definitions are listed alphabetically.
2. Acronym and Abbreviation List

This section consists of a list of selected system and network security acronyms and abbreviations, along
with their generally accepted definitions. When there are multiple definitions for a single term, the
acronym or abbreviation is italicized and each definition is listed separately.

1xRTT one times radio transmission technology
3DES Triple Data Encryption Standard
3G 3rd Generation
3GPP 3rd Generation Partnership Project
3GPP2 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2

A address resource record type
AA ABAC attribute authority
AAA authentication, authorization, and accounting
AAAK authentication, authorization, and accounting key
AAD additional authenticated data
AAR after action report
AAS adaptive antenna system
ABAC attribute-based access control
ACE access control entry
ACL access control list
ACM Association for Computing Machinery
ACO authenticated cipher offset
AD Active Directory
AD authenticated data
ADS alternate data stream
AES Advanced Encryption Standard
AES-CBC Advanced Encryption Standard-Cipher Block Chaining
AES-CTR Advanced Encryption Standard-Counter Mode
AFH adaptive frequency hopping
A-GPS assisted global positioning system
AH Authentication Header
AIDC automatic identification and data capture
AIM Association for Automatic Identification and Mobility
AIT automatic identification technology
AJAX Asynchronous JavaScript and XML
AK authorization key
AKID authorization key identifier
AKM authentication and key management
ALG application layer gateway
ANSI American National Standards Institute
AP access point
API application programming interface
APWG Anti-Phishing Working Group
ARIN American Registry for Internet Numbers
ARP Address Resolution Protocol
ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency
AS authentication server
AS authentication service
AS autonomous system
ASC Anti-Spyware Coalition
ASC X9 Accredited Standards Committee X9
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASLR address space layout randomization
ASN autonomous system number
ASN.1 Abstract Syntax Notation 1
ASP active server pages
ATA Advanced Technology Attachment
ATIM Announcement Traffic Indication Message
ATM asynchronous transfer mode
ATM automated teller machine
AV antivirus
AVIEN Anti-Virus Information Exchange Network
AVP attribute-value pair

B2B business-to-business
BCP best current practice
BCP business continuity plan
BGP Border Gateway Protocol
BGP-4 Border Gateway Protocol 4
BIA Bump-in-the-API
BIA business impact analysis
BioAPI Biometric Application Programming Interface
BIOS basic input/output system
BITS Bump-in-the-Stack
BPML Business Process Modeling Language
BPSS Business Process Specification Schema
BRP business recovery (resumption) plan
BS base station
BSC base station controller
BSI British Standards Institution
BSIA British Security Industry Association
BSP best security practice
BSS basic service set
BSSID basic service set identifier
BTNS better-than-nothing-security
BTS base transceiver station
BU binding update
BUA binding update acknowledgement

C&A certification and accreditation
CA certificate authority
CA certification agent
CA certification authority
CAC common access card
CAIDA Cooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis
CAPTCHA Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart
CARO Computer Antivirus Research Organization
CAVP Cryptographic Algorithm Validation Program
CBC Cipher Block Chaining
CBC-MAC Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code
CBEFF Common Biometric Exchange File Format
CC Common Criteria
CCE Common Configuration Enumeration
CCEVS Common Criteria Evaluation and Validation Scheme
CCIPS Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section
CCK complementary code keying
CCM Counter Mode with CBC-MAC
CCMP Counter Mode with CBC-MAC Protocol
CCRA Common Criteria Recognition Arrangement
CCSS Common Configuration Scoring System
ccTLD country code top-level domain
CD checking disabled
CD compact disc
CDFS compact disc file system
CDMA code division multiple access
CD-R compact disc-recordable
CD-ROM compact disc-read only memory
CD-RW compact disc-rewritable
CEO chief executive officer
CERIAS Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security
CERT computer emergency response team
CERT /CC CERT Coordination Center
CF CompactFlash
CFAA Computer Fraud and Abuse Act
CFB Cipher Feedback
CFI computer and financial investigations
CFR Code of Federal Regulations
CFTT computer forensics tool testing
CGA cryptographically generated addresses
CGI Common Gateway Interface
CHAP Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol
CHUID cardholder unique identifier
CIDR Classless Inter-Domain Routing
CIFS Common Internet File System
CIO chief information officer
CIP critical infrastructure protection
CIPC Critical Infrastructure Protection Committee
CIPSEA Confidential Information Protection and Statistical Efficiency Act
CIRC computer incident response capability
CIRC computer incident response center
CIRDB CERIAS Incident Response Database
CIRT computer incident response team
CIS Center for Internet Security
CISO chief information security officer
CLF common log format
CLI command line interface
CLR common language runtime
cm centimeter
CMA Certificate Management Authority
CMAC Cipher-based Method Authentication Code
CME Common Malware Enumeration
CMOS complementary metal oxide semiconductor
CMS Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
CMS Cryptographic Message Syntax
CMSS Common Misuse Scoring System
CMVP Cryptographic Module Validation Program
CN common name
CN correspondent node
CNSS Committee on National Security Systems
CNSSI Committee on National Security Systems Instruction
CoA care-of address
codec coder/decoder
COI conflict of interest
COM Component Object Model
COOP continuity of operations
Children s Online Privacy Protection Act
CORBA Common Object Request Broker Architecture
COTS commercial off-the-shelf
CP certificate policy
CP contingency plan
CPE Common Platform Enumeration
CPI compression parameter index
CPNI Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure
CPS certification practice statement
CPU central processing unit
CRAM challenge-response authentication mechanism
CRC cyclic redundancy check
CRL certificate revocation list
CS client/server
CSIA Cyber Security Industries Alliance
CSIRC computer security incident response capability
CSIRT computer security incident response team
CSO chief security officer
CSO computer security object
CSP Credentials Service Provider
CSR certificate signing request
CSRC Computer Security Resource Center
CSRDA Cyber Security Research and Development Act of 2002
CSS cascading style sheet
CSV comma-separated values
CTO chief technology officer
CTR counter mode encryption
CVE Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures
CVSS Common Vulnerability Scoring System
CWE Common Weakness Enumeration

DA destination address
DAA designated accrediting authority
DAA designated approving authority
DAC discretionary access control
DAD duplicate address detection
DAML DARPA Agent Markup Language
D-AMPS Digital Advanced Mobile Phone Service
DAO Data Access Object
DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
dBm decibels referenced to one milliwatt
DBMS database management system
DC domain controller
DCE Distributed Computing Environment
DCOM Distributed Component Object Model
DCS distributed control system
DDMS Department of Defense Metadata Specification
DDoS distributed denial of service
DEA Data Encryption Algorithm
DEP Data Execution Prevention
DES Data Encryption Standard
DFS Distributed File System
DFS dynamic frequency selection
DH Diffie-Hellman
DHAAD Dynamic Home Agent Address Discovery
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DHCPv6 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for Internet Protocol v6
DHS U.S. Department of Homeland Security
DIMS Digital Identity Management Service
DISA U.S. Defense Information Systems Agency
DLL dynamic link library
DMA direct memory access
DMZ demilitarized zone
DN distinguished name
DN domain name
DNP Distributed Network Protocol
DNS domain name system
DNSBL Domain Name System Blacklist
DNSSEC Domain Name System Security Extensions
DOC U.S. Department of Commerce
DoD U.S. Department of Defense
DOE U.S. Department of Energy
DOI domain of interpretation
DOJ U.S. Department of Justice
DOM Document Object Model
DoS denial of service
DPA differential power analysis
DRA data recovery agent
DRM digital rights management
DRP disaster recovery plan
DS Delegation Signer
DS distribution system
DS Field differentiated services field
DSA Digital Signature Algorithm
DSL digital subscriber line
DSML Directory Services Markup Language
DSN delivery status notification
DSOD dynamic separation of duty
DSS Digital Signature Standard
DSTM Dual Stack Transition Mechanism
DTC Distributed Transaction Coordinator
DTD Document Type Definition
DTR derived test requirement
DUID DHCP unique identifier
DVD digital video disc
DVD-R digital video disc - recordable
DVD-ROM digital video disc - read only memory
DVD-RW digital video disc - rewritable

EAL evaluation assurance level
EAP Extensible Authentication Protocol
EAP-FAST Extensible Authentication Protocol-Flexible Authentication via Secure Tunneling
EAPOL Extensible Authentication Protocol Over LAN
EAPOL-KCK Extensible Authentication Protocol Over LAN Key Confirmation Key
EAPOL-KEK Extensible Authentication Protocol Over LAN Key Encryption Key
EAP-TLS Extensible Authentication Protocol-Transport Layer Security
EAP-TTLS Extensible Authentication Protocol-Tunneled Transport Layer Security
EBGP Exterior Border Gateway Protocol
ebXML Electronic Business using eXtensible Markup Language
EC2N Elliptic Curve over G[2N]
ECB Electronic Codebook (mode)
ECC Elliptic Curve Cryptography
ECDH Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman
ECDSA Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm
ECM Enterprise Configuration Manager
ECP Encryption Control Protocol
ECPA Electronic Communications Privacy Act
EDGE Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution
EDI electronic data interchange
EDR enhanced data rate
EEPROM electronically erasable programmable read-only memory
EFI Extensible Firmware Interface
EFS Encrypting File System
EGP Exterior Gateway Protocol
EH extension header
EICAR European Institute for Computer Antivirus Research
EIGRP Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
EIK EAP Integrity Key
email electronic mail
EMS energy management system
EMS Enhanced Messaging Service
EMSK Extended Master Session Key
EPAL Enterprise Privacy Authorization Language
EPC electronic product code
EPCIS Electronic Product Code Information Services
EPHI electronic protected health information
EPS events per second
ERP enterprise resource planning
ESMS enterprise security management system
ESMTP Extended Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
ESN electronic serial number
ESP Encapsulating Security Payload
ESS Extended Service Set
ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute
EU European Union
EUI-64 Extended Unique Identifier 64 bit
EV-DO Evolution-Data Optimized
ext2fs Second Extended Filesystem
ext3fs Third Extended Filesystem

FAQ frequently asked questions
FAR Federal Acquisition Regulation
FASC-N Federal Agency Smart Credential Number
FASP Federal Agency Security Practices
FAT file allocation table
FBCA Federal Bridge Certification Authority
FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation
FBI CJIS Federal Bureau of Investigation Criminal Justice Information Services Division
FCC Federal Communications Commission
FCC ID Federal Communications Commission Identification number
FCL final checklist list
FCPF Federal PKI Common Policy Framework
FCRA Fair Credit Reporting Act
FCS frame check sequence
FDA Food and Drug Administration
FDCC Federal Desktop Core Configuration
FDCE Federated Development and Certification Environment
FDE full disk encryption
FDIC Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
FEA Federal Enterprise Architecture
FEK file encryption key
FFMIA Federal Financial Management Improvement Act
FHSS frequency hopping spread spectrum
FIB forwarding information base
FICC Federal Identity Credentialing Committee
FIPS Federal Information Processing Standards
FIRST Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams
FISCAM Federal Information System Controls Audit Manual
FISMA Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002
Federal Information Systems Security Educators Association
FLETC Federal Law Enforcement Training Center
FMR false match rate
FMS Fluhrer-Mantin-Shamir
FNMR false non match rate
FOIA Freedom of Information Act
FPC Federal Preparedness Circular
FPKI Federal Public Key Infrastructure
FPKIA Federal Public Key Infrastructure Architecture
FPKIPA Federal Public Key Infrastructure Policy Authority
FQDN fully qualified domain name
FRR false rejection rate
FSO field security office
FTC Federal Trade Commission
FTCA Federal Trade Commission Act
FTP File Transfer Protocol
FUS Fast User Switching
FY fiscal year

GAO U.S. Government Accountability Office
GB gigabyte
GFAC generalized framework for access control
GFIRST Government Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams
GHz gigahertz
GIG Global Information Grid
GINA graphical identification and authentication
GKEK Group Key Encryption Key
GLB or GLBA Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act
GMK Group Master Key
GnuPG GNU Privacy Guard
GOTS government off-the-shelf
GPL general public license
GPMC Group Policy Management Console
GPO Group Policy Object
GPRS general packet radio service
GPS global positioning system
GR graceful restart
GRE Generic Routing Encapsulation
GRS General Records Schedule
GS1 Global Standards One
GSA U.S. General Services Administration
GSM Global System for Mobile Communications
GTC Generic Token Card
GTEK group traffic encryption key
GTK group temporal key
gTLD generic top-level domain
GTSM Generalized TTL Security Mechanism
GUI graphical user interface

HA high availability
HA home agent
HAG high assurance guard
HCI host controller interface
HERF hazards of electromagnetic radiation to fuel
HERO hazards of electromagnetic radiation to ordnance
HERP hazards of electromagnetic radiation to personnel
HF high frequency
HFS Hierarchical File System
HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
HINFO host information
HIP Host Identity Protocol
HIPAA Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
HIPERLAN high-performance radio local area network
HKLM HKEY_Local_Machine
HL7 Health Level Seven
HMAC keyed-hash message authentication code
HMI human-machine interface
HPA host protected area
HPFS High-Performance File System
HR human resources
HSARPA Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency
HSPD Homeland Security Presidential Directive
HTCIA High Technology Crime Investigation Association
HTCP Hyper Text Caching Protocol
HTML Hypertext Markup Language
HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol
HTTPS Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol
Hz hertz

I&A identification and authentication
I/O input/output
I3P Institute for Information Infrastructure Protection
IA information assurance
IAB Internet Architecture Board
IACIS International Association of Computer Investigative Specialists
IAIP Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection
IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
IAO information assurance officer
IATF Information Assurance Technical Framework
IBC iterated block cipher
IBE identity-based encryption
iBGP Internal Border Gateway Protocol
IBMJSSE IBM Java Secure Socket Extension
IBSS independent basic service set
IC3 Internet Crime Complaint Center
ICAMP Incident Cost Analysis and Modeling Project
ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
ICCID Integrated Circuit Card Identification
ICCP Inter-control Center Communications Protocol
ICF Internet Connection Firewall
ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol
ICP Internet Cache Protocol
ICS industrial control system
ICS Internet Connection Sharing
ICSA International Computer Security Association
ICV integrity check value
ID identification
IDART Information Design Assurance Red Team
IDE integrated development environment
IDE Integrated Drive Electronics
IDEA International Data Encryption Algorithm
iDEN Integrated Digital Enhanced Network
ID-FF Identity Federation Framework
IDMEF Intrusion Detection Message Exchange Format
IDMS identity management system
IDPS intrusion detection and prevention system
IDS intrusion detection system
ID-SIS Identity Service Interface Specifications
ID-WSF Identity Web Services Framework
ID-WSF DST Identity Web Services Framework Data Services Template
IE Internet Explorer
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
IED intelligent electronic device
IEEE-SA IEEE Standards Association
IESG Internet Security Steering Group
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force
IETF BCP Internet Engineering Task Force Best Current Practice
IETF RFC Internet Engineering Task Force Request for Comments
IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol
IGP interior gateway protocol
IID interface identifier
IIF information in identifiable form
IIHI individually identifiable health information
IIS Internet Information Services
IKE Internet Key Exchange
IM instant messaging
IMAP Internet Message Access Protocol
IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identity
IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity
INCITS InterNational Committee for Information Technology Standards
IP Internet Protocol
IPA initial privacy assessment
IPComp Internet Protocol Payload Compression Protocol
IPng Internet Protocol Next Generation
IPS intrusion prevention system
IPsec Internet Protocol Security
IPv4 Internet Protocol version 4
IPv6 Internet Protocol version 6
IPX Internet Packet Exchange
IR infrared
IR interagency report
IRC Internet Relay Chat
IrDA Infrared Data Association
IRQ interrupt request line
IRS Internal Revenue Service
IRTF Internet Research Task Force
IS information system
ISA interconnection security agreement
ISA International Society of Automation
ISAC information sharing and analysis center
ISAKMP Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol
ISAP Information Security Automation Program
ISAPI Internet Server Application Programming Interface
ISATAP Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol
ISF Information Security Forum
ISID Industrial Security Incident Database
IS-IS Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System
ISM industrial, scientific, and medical
ISM information security marking
ISMS information security management system
ISO International Organization for Standardization
ISP Internet service provider
ISSEA International Systems Security Engineering Association
ISSO information systems security officer
ISSPM information systems security program manager
IT information technology
ITAA Information Technology Association of America
ITF Interrogator Talks First
ITL Information Technology Laboratory
ITU International Telecommunications Union
ITU-T International Telecommunications Union-Telecommunication Standardization
IUT implementation under test
IV initialization vector

Java EE Java Platform, Enterprise Edition
JAXR Java API for XML Registries
JFFS2 Journaling Flash File System, version 2
JIT just-in-time
JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group
JRE Java Runtime Environment
JSM Java Security Manager
JSP Java Server Pages
JSSE Java Secure Socket Extension
JTAG Joint Test Action Group
JTC1 Joint Technical Committee 1 (International Organization for Standardization
[ISO]/International Electrotechnical Commission [IEC])
JVM Java Virtual Machine

KB kilobyte
Kbps kilobit per second
KDC key distribution center
KEK key encryption key
KG key generator
KGD key generation and distribution
kHz kilohertz
KINK Kerberized Internet Negotiation of Keys
KSG key stream generator
KSK key signing key

L2CAP Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol
L2F Layer 2 Forwarding
L2TP Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol
L2VPN Layer 2 Virtual Private Network
L3VPN Layer 3 Virtual Private Network
LACNIC Latin American and Caribbean IP Addresses Registry
LAN local area network
LCD liquid crystal display
LDA local delivery agent
LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
LED light emitting diode
LF low frequency
LFSR linear feedback shift register
LIR local Internet registry
LM LAN Manager
LMP Link Manager Protocol
LOC location (DNS record)
LOS line-of-sight
LRA Local Registration Authority
LUA limited user account

m meter
MAC mandatory access control
MAC media access control (layer)
MAC Medium Access Control
MAC message authentication code
MAF multi-mode authentication framework
MAN metropolitan area network
MAPS Mail Abuse Prevention System
MB megabyte
Mbps megabits per second
MBR master boot record
MBSA Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer
MD message digest
ME mobile equipment
MED multi-exit discriminator
MEP message exchange pattern
MES manufacturing execution system
MHz megahertz
MIB management information base
MIC mandatory integrity control
MIC message integrity check
MIC message integrity code
MIKEY Multimedia Internet KEYing
MIME Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
MIMO multiple-input, multiple-output
MIN mobile identification number
Mini SD mini secure digital
MIP Mobile Internet Protocol
MitM man-in-the-middle (attack)
MLD Multicast Listener Discovery
MMC Microsoft Management Console
MMC MultiMediaCard
MMCmobile MultiMediaCard Mobile
MMS Multimedia Messaging Service
MN mobile node
MO magneto-optical
MOA memorandum of agreement
MOBIKE IKEv2 Mobility and Multihoming Protocol
MODP modular exponential
MOSS MIME Object Security Services
MOU memorandum of understanding
MOVS Modes of Operation Validation System
MPA Mobile Prefix Advertisement
MPLS multiprotocol label switching
MPS Mobile Prefix Solicitation
MQV Menezes-Qu-Vanstone
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
MS Microsoft
MS mobile subscriber
MSC mobile switching center
MS-CHAP Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
MS-DOS Microsoft Disk Operating System
MSDP Multicast Source Discovery Protocol
MSEC multicast security
MSEL Master Scenario Events List
MSIL Microsoft Intermediate Language
MSISDN Mobile Subscriber Integrated Services Digital Network
MSK master session key
MSKB Microsoft Knowledge Base
MSSP managed security services provider
MSWG Metadata Standards Working Group
MTA mail transfer agent
MTM Mobile Trusted Module
MTU master telemetry unit
MTU master terminal unit
MTU maximum transmission unit
MUA mail user agent
mW milliwatt
MX mail exchanger

NA Neighbor Advertisement
NAC network access control
NACI National Agency Check and Inquiries
NAP Network Access Protection
NARA National Archives and Records Administration
NAS network access server
NAT network address translation
network address translation protocol translation
NAT-T network address translation traversal
NBA network behavior analysis
NBAD network behavior anomaly detection
NCES NetCentric Enterprise Services
NCP National Checklist Program
NCSD National Cyber Security Division
NCSI NIST National Center for Standards and Certification Information
ND Neighbor Discovery
NDAC nondiscretionary access control
NetBEUI NetBIOS Extended User Interface
NetBIOS Network Basic Input/Output System
NFAT network forensic analysis tool
NFC near field communication
NFS network file system
NFS Network File Sharing
NH next header
NIAC National Infrastructure Advisory Council
NIAP National Information Assurance Partnership
NIC network interface card
NICC National Infrastructure Coordinating Center
NIJ National Institute of Justice
NIPC National Infrastructure Protection Center
NIS Network Information System
NISAC National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center
NISCC National Infrastructure Security Co-ordination Centre
NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology
NISTIR National Institute of Standards and Technology Interagency Report
NLOS non-line-of-sight
NPIVP NIST Personal Identity Verification Program
NPPI nonpublic personal information
NS name server
NS Neighbor Solicitation
NSA National Security Agency
NSAPI Netscape Server Application Programming Interface
NSEC Next Secure
NSI national security information
NSRL National Software Reference Library
NSS Network Security Services
NSTB National SCADA Test Bed
NSTISSC National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security
NSTISSI National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security
NTFS New Technology File System
NTP Network Time Protocol
NTTAA National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995
NUD Neighbor Unreachability Detection
NVD National Vulnerability Database
NVLAP National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program
NW3C National White Collar Crime Center
NX no execute

OASIS Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards
OCC Office of the Comptroller of the Currency
OCIO Office of the Chief Information Officer
OCSP Online Certificate Status Protocol
ODBC Open Database Connectivity
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OEM original equipment manufacturer
OFB output feedback (mode)
OFDM orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing
OGSA Open Grid Services Architecture
OHA Open Handset Alliance
OIG Office of Inspector General
OLE object linking and embedding
OMB Office of Management and Budget
ONS Object Naming Service
OOB out-of-band
OPC OLE for Process Control
OpenPGP An Open Specification for Pretty Good Privacy
OPM U.S. Office of Personnel Management
ORB open relay blacklist
OS operating system
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OSI Open Systems Interconnection
OSPF Open Shortest Path First
OSS open source software
OSSTMM Open Source Security Testing Methodology Manual
OSVDB Open Source Vulnerability Database
OTP one-time password
OU organizational unit
OVAL Open Vulnerability and Assessment Language
OWASP Open Web Application Security Project
OWL-S Web Ontology Language for Services

P2P peer-to-peer
PAC Privilege Attribute Certificate
PAC Protected Access Credential
PAD peer authorization database
PAM pluggable authentication module
PAN personal area network
PAOS Reverse HTTP Binding for SOAP
PAP Password Authentication Protocol
PAP policy access point
PAS publicly available specification
PBA pre-boot authentication
PBAC policy-based access control
PBCC Packet Binary Convolutional Code
PBE pre-boot environment
PBX private branch exchange
PC personal computer
PCI Payment Card Industry
PCI personal identity verification card issuer
PCI DSS Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard
PCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
PCN process control network
PCP IP Payload Compression Protocol
PCS process control system
PCSF Process Control System Forum
PCSRF Process Control Security Requirements Forum
PDA personal digital assistant
PDD Presidential Decision Directive
PDF Portable Document Format
PDP policy decision point
PDS protective distribution systems
PEAP Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol
PED portable electronic devices
PEM Privacy Enhanced Mail
PEP policy enforcement point
PFS perfect forward secrecy
PGP Pretty Good Privacy
PHI protected health information
PHP PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor
PHY Physical (layer)
PIA privacy impact assessment
PICS Platform for Internet Content Selection
PII personally identifiable information
PIM personal information management
Protocol Independent Multicast Sparse Mode
PIN personal identification number
PIP policy information point
PIR Public Interest Registry
PIV personal identity verification
PKCS Public Key Cryptography Standard
PKI public key infrastructure
PKM privacy key management
PKMv1 Privacy Key Management Protocol version 1
PKMv2 Privacy Key Management Protocol version 2
PL public law
PLC programmable logic controller
PMA Policy Management Authority
PMK pairwise master key
PMKSA Pairwise Master Key Security Association
PMP point-to-multipoint
PMTU path maximum transmission unit
PN packet number
PNG Portable Network Graphics
POA&M plan of action and milestones
POC point of contact
POC proof of concept
PoE Power over Ethernet
POP Post Office Protocol
POP3 Post Office Protocol version 3
PP protection profile
PPP Point-to-Point Protocol
PPTP Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
PPVPN provisioner-provided virtual private network
PRA Paperwork Reduction Act
Pre-PAK pre-primary authorization key
PRF pseudorandom function
PRNG pseudorandom number generator
PSK pre-shared key
PSTN public switched telephone network
PTA privacy threshold assessment (or analysis)
PTK pairwise transient key
PTV perceived target value
PUB publication
PUK PIN unblocking key
PVG patch and vulnerability group

QoP quality of protection
QoS quality of service

R&D research and development
R/W read/write
RA receiver address
RA Registration Authority
RA remote assistance
RA Router Advertisement
RAdAC risk adaptive access control
RADIUS Remote Authentication Dial In User Service
RAID redundant array of independent disks
RAM random access memory
RAT remote administration tool
RBAC role-based access control
RC2 Rivest Cipher 2
RC4 Rivest Cipher 4
RCE route cache entry
RCFL Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory
RCP Remote Copy Protocol
RDBMS relational database management system
RDP Remote Desktop Protocol
REL rights expression language
REP Robots Exclusion Protocol
REST Representational State Transfer
RF radio frequency
RFC request for comments
RFD route flap damping
RFID radio frequency identification
RFP request for proposal
RIB routing information base
RIP Routing Information Protocol
RIPE NCC R seaux IP Europ ens Network Coordination Centre
RIPng Routing Information Protocol next generation
RIR regional internet registries
RIS Remote Installation Services
RMA reliability, maintainability, and availability
RMON Remote Monitoring
RNG random number generator
ROE rules of engagement
ROM read-only memory
RP responsible person (record)
RPC remote procedure call
RPF Reverse Path Forwarding
RPO recovery point objective
RR resource record
RRSIG resource record signature
RS relay station
RS Router Solicitation
RSA Rivest-Shamir-Adelman
RSBAC rule set-based access control
RSN Robust Security Network
RSNA Robust Security Network Association
RSNIE Robust Security Network Information Element
RSO reduced sign-on
RSS Really Simple Syndication
RSSI received signal strength indication
RSVP Resource ReSerVation Protocol
RTF Rich Text Format
RTLS real-time location system
RTO recovery time objective
RTP Real-Time Transport Protocol
RTU remote terminal unit or remote telemetry unit
RuBAC rule-based access control
R-UIM Removable User Identity Module

S/MIME Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
SA security association
SA source address
SACL system access control list
SAD security association database
SAFER Secure And Fast Encryption Routine
SAID security association identifier
SAISO senior agency information security officer
SAM Security Account Manager
SAM software asset management
SAMATE Software Assurance Metrics and Tool Evaluation
SAML Security Assertion Markup Language
SAN storage area network
S-BGP Secure Border Gateway Protocol
SC subcommittee
SCADA supervisory control and data acquisition
SCAP Security Content Automation Protocol
SCP Secure Copy Protocol
SCSI Small Computer System Interface
SCTP Stream Control Transmission Protocol
SD Secure Digital
SDIO Secure Digital Input Output
SDK software development kit
SDLC System Development Life Cycle
SDO standards development organization
SDP Session Description Protocol
SDP Service Discovery Protocol
SEI Software Engineering Institute
SEM security event management
SEND Secure Neighbor Discovery
SEP secure entry point
SFTP Secure File Transfer Protocol
SHA Secure Hash Algorithm
SHA-1 Secure Hash Algorithm 1
shim6 Site Multihoming by IPv6 Intermediation
SHS Secure Hash Standard
SIA Security Industry Association
SID security identifier
SIEM security information and event management
SIG special interest group
SIIT Stateless IP/ICMP Translation Algorithm
SIM security information management
SIM subscriber identity module
SIP Session Initiation Protocol
SIS safety instrumented system
SKEME Secure Key Exchange Mechanism
SLA service level agreement
SMB Server Message Block
SME subject matter expert
S/MIME Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
SMS Short Message Service
SMS Systems Management Server
SMT scar, mark and tattoo
SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SNL Sandia National Laboratories
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol
SNTP Simple Network Time Protocol
SOA service-oriented architecture
SOA start of authority (resource record)
soBGP Secure Origin Border Gateway Protocol
SoD separation of duties
SOHO small office/home office
SOP standard operating procedure
SOR system of records
SORN system of records notice
SOX Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
SP service pack
SP special publication
SPD security policy database
SPI security parameters index
SPL Structured Product Labeling
SPML Service Provisioning Markup Language
SPP-ICS System Protection Profile for Industrial Control Systems
SQL Structured Query Language
SR service release
SRES signed response
SRTP Secure Real-Time Transport Protocol
SS subscriber station
SSDP Simple Service Discovery Protocol
SSE-CMM Systems Security Engineering-Capability Maturity Model
SSH Secure Shell
SSI Server Side Includes
SSID service set identifier
SSL Secure Sockets Layer
SSLF Specialized Security-Limited Functionality
SSN social security number
SSO single sign-on
SSoD static separation of duty
SSP secure simple pairing
SSPI Security Support Provider Interface
ST security target
STA station
STIG security technical implementation guide
STS security token service
SUID Set-User-ID
SWSA Semantic Web Services Initiative Architecture
SZ security zone

TA test assertion
TA transmitter address
TACACS Terminal Access Controller Access Control System
TAG technical advisory group
TB terabyte
TC technical committee
TC68 ISO/IEC Technical Committee 68
TCP Transmission Control Protocol
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TDEA Triple Data Encryption Algorithm
TDM time division multiplexing
TDMA time division multiple access
TEK traffic encryption key
TERENA Trans-European Research and Education Networking Association
TFT thin film transistor
TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol
TGS ticket-granting service
TIA Telecommunications Industry Association
TID tag identifier
TK temporal key
TKIP Temporal Key Integrity Protocol
TLD top-level domain
TLS Transport Layer Security
TMOVS Modes of Operation Validation System for the Triple DES Algorithm
TOE target of evaluation
TOS trusted operating system
ToS Type of Service
TPC transmission power control
TPM trusted platform module
TR technical report
TRT transport relay translator
TS technical specification
TSA time stamping authority
TSC TKIP sequence counter
TSIG Secret Key Transaction Authentication for DNS
TSIG Transaction Signature
TSN transitional security network
TSP Time-Stamp Protocol
TT&E test, training, and exercise
TTF tag talks first
TTL time to live
TTLS Tunneled Transport Layer Security
TTP trusted third party
TXT text (record)

U.S. United States
U.S.C. United States Code
UAC User Account Control
UART universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter
UBR Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI) Business Registry
UCC Uniform Code Council, Inc.
UCE unsolicited commercial email
UDDI Uniform Description, Discovery, and Integration
UDF Universal Disk Format
UDP User Datagram Protocol
UFS UNIX File System
UHF ultra high frequency
UI user interface
UK United Kingdom
Underwriters Laboratories
ULA unique local address
ULP upper layer protocol
Unified Modeling Language
UMPC ultra-mobile personal computer
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
UNII Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure
UPC Universal Product Code
UPnP Universal Plug and Play
UPS uninterruptible power supply
URI Uniform Resource Identifier
URL Uniform Resource Locator
USB Universal Serial Bus
US-CERT United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team
USIM UMTS Subscriber Identity Module or Universal Subscriber Identity Module
UTM unified threat management
UUID Universally Unique Identifier
UWB ultrawideband

VB Visual Basic
VB.NET Visual Basic .NET
VBA Visual Basic for Applications
VBScript Visual Basic Script
VFD variable frequency drive
VHD virtual hard drive
VHF very high frequency
VLAN virtual local area network
VM virtual machine
VMS vulnerability management system
VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol
VOIPSA Voice over IP Security Alliance
VPN virtual private network
VPNC Virtual Private Network Consortium
VRRP Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol

W3C World Wide Web Consortium
WAN wide area network
WAP wireless access point
WAP Wireless Application Protocol
WaSP Web Standards Project
WAVE Wireless Access for Vehicular Environment
WAYF Where Are You From
WCCP Web Cache Coordination Protocol
W-CDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
WDS wireless distribution system
WebDAV Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning
WEP Wired Equivalent Privacy
WfMC Workflow Management Coalition
WfMS workflow management system
WG working group
WIDPS wireless intrusion detection and prevention system
WiMAX Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
WLAN wireless local area network
WMAN wireless metropolitan area network
Wi-Fi Multimedia
WORM write once, read many
WPA Wi-Fi Protected Access
WPA2 Wi-Fi Protected Access 2
WPAN wireless personal area network
WS Web services
WSDL Web Services Description Language
WSH Windows Script Host
WS-I Web services interoperability
WS-I Web Services Interoperability Organization
WSS4J Web Services Security for Java
WS-Security Web Services Security
WSUS Windows Server Update Services
WVE Wireless Vulnerabilities and Exploits
WWAN wireless wide area network
WWW World Wide Web

XACL XML Access Control Language
XACML eXtensible Access Control Markup Language
XCBC XOR Cipher Block Chaining
XCCDF eXtensible Configuration Checklist Description Format
XHTML Extensible Hypertext Markup Language
XKMS XML Key Management Specification
XML Extensible Markup Language
XOR exclusive OR
XrML eXtensible Rights Markup Language